Biodiversity Science ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (10): 1105-1113.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017134

• Original Papers: Plant Diversity • Previous Article     Next Article

Assessment of the space neighborhood effect on nature reserves based on temporal and spatial changes of artificial objects: a case study on Shapotou National Nature Reserve

Fangzheng Liu1, Peng Zhang2, Yubo Zhang1, Bing Chen1, Jinhong Du1, Wei Wang1, *(), Junsheng Li1   

  1. 1 Biodiversity Research Center, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
    2 Shapotou Desert Research and Experiment Station, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000
  • Received:2017-05-04 Accepted:2017-08-06 Online:2018-05-05
  • Wang Wei

It has been shown that the established nature reserves will affect the surrounding ecological environment, that is, the space neighborhood effect on nature reserves. At present, the ecological environment of the surrounding areas of some nature reserves has changed greatly, especially in the temporal and spatial changes of artificial objects. To study the space neighborhood effect on nature reserves based on temporal and spatial changes of artificial objects will do significant help to maintain the survival and safety of nature reserve and its protected objects. To analyze the variation intervals of the space neighborhood effect and the distance scale, and to identify the driving factors, we chose Ningxia Shapotou National Nature Reserve as a case study. We divided the study area within a range of 20 km around the nature reserve, extracted the artificial objects from the remote image analysis between 1990 and 2015, and used Mann-Kendall trend analysis and driving factor correlation test analysis, to assess the space neighborhood effect of nature reserves based on temporal and spatial changes in artificial objects. Results showed that the areas and patterns of artificial objects were expanding, which meant the impacts of human activities were increasing over time. In addition, the space neighborhood effect was most evident with increases in time and decreases in the distance scale. Trends in the space neighborhood effect were divided into three descending intervals, and the driving factors differed. In the first interval (1-5 km), the trend was occasionally significant, and shelter forest was the main driving factor. In the second interval (6-10 km), significance of the descending trend could be observed, and building became the driving factor. Lastly, the driving factor was farming, and a very significant descending trend was found in the third interval (11-20 km). Since the establishment of the Ningxia Shapotou National Nature Reserve, its surrounding land-use changes are significantly influenced by human activities, which needs attention.

Key words: nature reserves, space neighborhood effect, spillover, leakage, trend analysis

Fig. 1

The location of the study area"

Fig. 2

Interpretation result of study area between 1990 and 2015"

Table 1

Land use type and area (ha) for each period"

1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015
防护林 Shelter forest 17,498 10,536 13,592 23,990 21,878 22,200
天然草地 Natural grassland 38,971 41,608 34,462 34,742 35,026 38,393
农田 Farm 21,027 24,132 22,315 16,619 24,738 25,056
荒漠 Desert 224,391 225,600 230,718 224,165 213,015 203,397
河流 River 1,868 1,858 1,858 1,858 1,858 1,858
湖泊 Lake 195 195 885 1,246 1,592 1,479
城镇用地 Building 712 733 832 2,041 6,512 9,202
能源用地 Solar energy 0 0 0 0 42 3,076
总计 Total 304,661 304,661 304,661 304,661 304,661 304,661

Fig. 3

The trend of space neighborhood effect of artificial objects of study area between 1990 and 2015"

Table 2

Mann-Kendall trend Z test results on space neighborhood effect of artificial objects"

距离尺度 Distance scale (km) 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015
第一区间 1st interval 1-5 -0.73 -0.73 -1.96 -2.20* -1.47 -2.20*
第二区间 2nd interval 6-10 -2.20* -1.96 -1.96 -1.96 -2.20* -2.20*
第三区间 3rd interval 11-20 -3.22** -3.22** -3.22** -3.22** -3.58** -3.58**

Table 3

The results of the correlation analysis of the driving factors of space neighborhood effect"

1990 1995 2000
Shelter forest
Shelter forest
Shelter forest
第一区间 1st interval 0.855 -0.527 0.767 0.713 -0.418 0.773 0.848 -0.381 0.955*
第二区间 2nd interval 0.949* 0.871 0.904* 0.996** 0.939* 0.993** 0.645 0.907* 0.994**
第三区间 3rd interval 0.449 0.936** -0.013 0.682* 0.977** -0.399 0.887** 0.713* -0.273
全区间 Entire interval 0.959** 0.594** 0.635** 0.786** 0.756** 0.606** 0.869** 0.720** 0.689**
2005 2010 2015
Shelter forest
Shelter forest
Solar energy
Shelter forest
Solar energy
1st interval
0.993** -0.620 0.649 0.638 -0.404 0.647 0.973** 0.962** 0.110 0.186 -0.583
2nd interval
0.602 0.892* 0.473 0.957* 0.530 0.948* - 0.987** -0.038 0.891* 0.901*
3rd interval
0.846** 0.729* - 0.618 0.912** 0.073 - 0.794** 0.903** 0.751* 0.041
Entire interval
0.985** 0.538* 0.610** 0.959** 0.360 0.662** 0.490* 0.976** 0.533* 0.489* 0.830**
[1] Abesamis RA, Russ GR (2005) Density-dependent spillover from a marine reserve: long-term evidence. Ecological Applications, 5, 1798-1812.
[2] Amin A (2016) Exploring the role of economic incentives and spillover effects in biodiversity conservation policies in sub-Saharan Africa. Ecological Economics, 127, 185-191.
[3] Chen JN (2016) Review and outlook at the 60th anniversary of China’s nature reserves. Man and the Biosphere, (6), 1-3. (in Chinese)
[陈吉宁 (2016) 中国自然保护区60周年回顾和展望. 人与生物圈, (6), 1-3.]
[4] Chen LD, Li XZ, Fu BJ, Xiao DN, Zhao WW (2014) Development history and future research priorities of landscape ecology in China. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 34, 3129-3141. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[陈利顶, 李秀珍, 傅伯杰, 肖笃宁, 赵文武 (2014) 中国景观生态学发展历程与未来研究重点. 生态学报, 34, 3129-3141.]
[5] Chen XY, Shao S, Tian ZH, Xie Z, Yin P (2016) Impacts of air pollution and its spatial spillover effect on public health based on China’s big data sample. Journal of Cleaner Production, 142, 915-925.
[6] Cui GF (2013) Dictionary of Nature Conservology. China Forestry Publishing House, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[崔国发 (2013)自然保护区学词典.中国林业出版社, 北京.]
[7] Deng XY, Liu Y, Liu ZH, Yao JQ (2017) Temporal-spatial dynamic change characteristics of evapotranspiration in arid region of Northwest China. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 37, 2994-3008. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[邓兴耀, 刘洋, 刘志辉, 姚俊强 (2017) 中国西北干旱区蒸散发时空动态特征. 生态学报, 37, 2994-3008.]
[8] Department of Nature and Ecology Conservation of Ministry of Environmental Protection,Nanjing Institute of Environmental Science of Ministry of Environmental Protection (2006) National Nature Reserves of China. China Environmental Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[国家环境保护总局自然生态保护司,国家环境保护总局南京环境科学研究所(2006)中国国家级自然保护区 . 中国环境科学出版社, 北京.]
[9] Ewers R, Rodrigues A (2008) Estimates of reserve effectiveness are confounded by leakage. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 23, 113-116.
[10] Fan ZM, Zhang X, Li J, Yue TX, Liu JY, Sun XF, Xiang B, Kuang WH (2012) Transition trends of land-cover in national nature reserves of China. Acta Geographica Sinica, 67, 1623-1633. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[范泽孟, 张轩, 李婧, 岳天祥, 刘纪远, 孙晓芳, 香宝, 匡文慧 (2012) 国家级自然保护区土地覆盖类型转换趋势. 地理学报, 67, 1623-1633.]
[11] Hoaglin D, Mosteller F, Tukey J (2000) Understanding Robust and Exploratory Data Analysis. Wiley, New York.
[12] Howard PC, Davenport TRB, Kigenyi FW, Viskanic P, Baltzer MC, Dickinson CJ, Lwanga J, Matthews RA, Mupada E (2000) Protected area planning in the tropics: Uganda’s national system of forest nature reserves. Conservation Biology, 14, 858-875.
[13] Huyan JQ, Xiao J, Yu BW, Xu WH (2014) Research progress in function zoning of nature reserves in China. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 34, 6391-6396. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[呼延佼奇, 肖静, 于博威, 徐卫华 (2014) 我国自然保护区功能分区研究进展. 生态学报, 34, 6391-6396.]
[14] Leverington F, Costa KL, Pavese H, Lisle A, Hockings M (2010) A global analysis of protected area management effectiveness. Environmental Management, 46, 685-698.
[15] Li XJ, Li GP, Zeng G, Gu CL, Lin BY, Zhang WZ (2006) Economic Geography, 2nd edn. Higher Education Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[李小建, 李国平, 曾刚, 辜成林, 林炳耀, 张文忠 (2006) 经济地理学, 第二版. 高等教育出版社, 北京.]
[16] Li XR, Zhou HY, Wang XP, Liu LC, Zhang JG, Chen GX, Zhang ZS, Liu YB, Tan HJ, Gao YH (2016) Ecological restoration and recovery in arid desert regions of China: a review for 60-year research progress of Shapotou Desert Research and Experiment Station. Journal of Desert Research, 36, 247-264. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[李新荣, 周海燕, 王新平, 刘立超, 张景光, 陈国雄, 张志山, 刘玉冰, 谭会娟, 高艳红 (2016) 中国干旱沙区的生态重建与恢复: 沙坡头站60年重要研究进展综述. 中国沙漠, 36, 247-264.]
[17] Liu FZ, Zhang JL, Wang L, Yang ZW, Cui GF (2016) Vegetation growth and conservation efficacy assessment in the southern part of the Gansu Anxi National Nature Reserve in Hyper-Arid Desert. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 36, 1582-1590. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[刘方正, 张建亮, 王亮, 杨增武, 崔国发 (2016) 甘肃安西极旱荒漠国家级自然保护区南片植被长势与保护成效. 生态学报, 36, 1582-1590.]
[18] Liu NF, Hao YM, Wu HB (2005)A Comprehensive Scientific Survey of Ningxia Shapotou National Nature Reserve. Lanzhou University Press, Lanzhou. (in Chinese)
[刘迺发, 郝耀明, 吴洪斌 (2005)宁夏沙坡头国家级自然保护区综合科学考察. 兰州大学出版社, 兰州.]
[19] Maiorano L, Falcucci A, Boitani L (2008) Size-dependent resistance of protected areas to land-use change. Royal Society Proceedings B: Biological Sciences, 275, 1297-1304.
[20] Nagendra H, Tucker C, Carlson L, Southworth J, Karmacharya M, Karna B (2004) Monitoring parks through remote sensing: studies in Nepal and Honduras. Environmental Management, 5, 748-760.
[21] Nepstad D, Schwartzman S, Bamberger B, Santilli M, Ray D, Schlesinger P, Lefebvre P, Alencar A, Prinz E, Fiske G (2006) Inhibition of Amazon deforestation and fire by parks and indigenous lands. Conservation Biology, 20, 65-73.
[22] Oliveira PJ, Asner GP, Knapp DE, Almeyda A, Galvángildemeister R, Keene S, Raybin RF, Smith RC (2007) Land-use allocation protects the Peruvian Amazon. Science, 317, 1233-1236.
[23] Richard F, Eve M, Kerrie W, Josie C, Hedley G, James W, Carissa K, David G, Hugh P (2010) Replacing underperforming protected areas achieves better conservation outcomes. Nature, 466, 365-367.
[24] Russ GR, Alcala AC, Maypa AP, Calumpong HP, White AT (2004) Marine reserve benefits local fisheries. Ecological Applications, 2, 597-606.
[25] Sánchez-Azofeifa GA, Daily GC, Pfaff ASP, Busch C (2003) Integrity and isolation of Costa Rica’s national parks and biological reserves: examining the dynamics of land-cover change. Biological Conservation, 109, 123-135.
[26] Su Y (2005) The research and practice of harmonized development of the nature reserves and their ambient communities in west China. Forestry and Society, 13(1), 27-34. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[苏杨 (2005) 中国西部自然保护区与周边社区协调发展的研究与实践. 林业与社会, 13(1), 27-34.]
[27] Sun ZF (2007) Research on Agglomeration of FDI in Manufacturing Industries and Regional Economy Development. PhD dissertation, Tianjin University, Tianjin. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[孙忠峰 (2007) 制造业外资聚集与区域经济发展研究. 博士学位论文, 天津大学, 天津.]
[28] Tošić I (2004) Spatial and temporal variability of winter and summer precipitation over Serbia and Montenegro. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 77, 47-56.
[29] Wang CH, Wen YL, Hu CD, Si KC (2010) Research progress on harmonious development of nature reserves and surrounding communities. Issues of Forestry Economics, 30, 486-492. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[王昌海, 温亚利, 胡崇德, 司开创 (2010) 中国自然保护区与周边社区协调发展研究进展. 林业经济问题, 30, 486-492.]
[30] Wang MX, Yan JP, Li SS (2014) Spatial-temporal variation and the tendency of droughts and floods on the southeast coast of China over 54 years. Resource Science, 36, 2307-2315. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[王米雪, 延军平, 李双双 (2014) 1960-2013年中国东南沿海地区旱涝时空变化特征及其趋势分析. 资源科学, 36, 2307-2315.]
[31] Wang W, Xin LJ, Du JH, Chen B, Liu FZ, Zhang LB, Li JS (2016) Evaluating conservation effectiveness of protected areas: advances and new perspectives. Biodiversity Science, 24, 1177-1188. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[王伟, 辛利娟, 杜金鸿, 陈冰, 刘方正, 张立博, 李俊生 (2016) 自然保护地保护成效评估: 进展与展望. 生物多样性, 24, 1177-1188.]
[32] Wittemyer G, Elsen P, Bean WT, Burton AC, Brashares JS (2008) Accelerated human population growth at protected area edges. Science, 321, 123-126.
[33] Wright SJ, Sanchez-Azofeifa GA, Portillo-Quintero C, Davies D (2007) Poverty and corruption compromise tropical forest reserves. Ecological Applications, 5, 1259-1266.
[34] Yin ZG (2012) Subjective and Objective System in Desert Tourism and Scenic Areas’ Competitive Superiority: Typical Case Study.PhD dissertation, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[尹郑刚 (2012) 沙漠旅游主客体系统及景区竞争优势: 典型案例研究. 博士学位论文, 兰州大学, 兰州.]
[35] Yuan LH, Jiang WG, Shen WM, Liu YH, Wang WJ, Tao LL, Zheng H, Liu XF (2013) The spatio-temporal variations of vegetation cover in the Yellow River Basin from 2000 to 2010. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 33, 7798-7806. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[袁丽华, 蒋卫国, 申文明, 刘颖慧, 王文杰, 陶亮亮, 郑华, 刘孝富 (2013) 2000-2010年黄河流域植被覆盖的时空变化. 生态学报, 33, 7798-7806.]
[36] Zhu HJ (2015) Study on Synthetic Benefit Evaluation on Desertification Control in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region..PhD dissertation, Northwest A & F University, Yangling (in Chinese with English abstract)
[朱海娟 (2015) 宁夏荒漠化治理综合效益评价研究. 博士学位论文, 西北农林科技大学, 杨凌.]
[1] Zejin Zhang,Yanpei Guo,Jin-Sheng He,Zhiyao Tang. (2018) Conservation status of Wild Plant Species with Extremely Small Populations in China . Biodiv Sci, 26(6): 572-577.
[2] Bing Chen, Fangzheng Liu, Yubo Zhang, Jinhong Du, Wei Wang, Junsheng Li. (2017) Assessment of forest conservation in the Cangshan Nature Reserve based on propensity score matching . Biodiv Sci, 25(9): 999-1007.
[3] YAN Min,LI Zeng-Yuan,TIAN Xin,CHEN Er-Xue,GU Cheng-Yan. (2016) Remote sensing estimation of gross primary productivity and its response to climate change in the upstream of Heihe River Basin . Chin J Plan Ecolo, 40(1): 1-12.
[4] Yinbo Zhang,Jingxuan Fu,Yingli Liu,Fan Bai,Weiguo Sang. (2015) Delimiting protection redline of rare and endangered plants in China . Biodiv Sci, 23(6): 733-739.
[5] Guanghua Zhao,Yu Tian,Zhiyao Tang,Junsheng Li,Hui Zeng. (2013) Distribution of terrestrial national nature reserves in relation to human activities and natural environments in China . Biodiv Sci, 21(6): 658-665.
[6] Xinyi Huang, Jiakuan Chen. (2012) Problems facing wetland nature reserves in China in the new era and recommendations for overcoming them . Biodiv Sci, 20(6): 774-778.
[7] SUN Xiao-Peng, WANG Tian-Ming, KOU Xiao-Jun, and GE Jian-Ping. (2012) Normalized difference vegetation index dynamic change and its driving factor analysis with long time series in the Jinghe River watershed on the Loess Plateau of China . Chin J Plan Ecolo, 36(6): 511-521.
[8] Yahan Chen, Zhiyao Tang, Jingyun Fang. (2009) Distribution of nature reserves and status of biodiversity protection in China . Biodiv Sci, 17(6): 664-674.
[9] Xuezhi Wang, Weihua Xu, Zhiyun Ouyang. (2009) Impacts of spatio-temporal changes in agricultural land on giant panda habitat: A case study in the Baicaohe watershed of the mid-Minshan Mountains . Biodiv Sci, 17(1): 10-18.
[11] Jing Liu, Hong Miao, Zhiyun Ouyang, Weihua Xu, Hua Zheng. (2008) Analyzing the effectiveness of community management in Chinese nature reserves . Biodiv Sci, 16(4): 389-398.
[12] LI Wen-Ying, HE Yun-Chun, WANG Jian-Ming, ZHANG Zuo-Gang, ZHANG Xian-Hong. (2003) Ecological diversity of entomogenous fungi of three nature reserves in Shanxi Province . Biodiv Sci, 11(1): 53-58.
[13] YAN Chuan-Hai, CHEN Chang-Du. (1999) A Study on the Evaluation of the Nature Reserves in Huaihai Region from the Viewpoint of Vegetation Ecology . Chin J Plan Ecolo, 23(199901): 65-69.
[14] TAN Jian-Kang;AN Shu-Qing;WANG Zhong-Feng;ZHU Xue-Lei;ZHANG Jiu-Hai;CHENG Xing-Long and LI Guo-Qi. (1998) Comparative Study on Content of Free Radical and Membrane Leakage in Wheat Leaves Under Salt Stress of NaCl,Na2 SO4 and Na2 CO3 . Chin Bull Bot, 15(增刊): 82-86.
[15] Li Yiming, Li Dianmo. (1996) Main principles and approaches of nature reserve design . Biodiv Sci, 04(1): 32-40.
Full text