Biodiversity Science ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (9): 990-998.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017119

• Original Papers: Plant Diversity • Previous Article     Next Article

Changes in the numbers of Kam fragrant glutinous rice varieties in the Dong regions of Guizhou Province

Qiyi Lei1,2, Jiangju Zhou2, Jing Luo2, Wenhua Zhang2, Jun Sun2, Chunlin Long1,3,*()   

  1. 1 College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China, Beijing 100081
    2 College of Environmental and Life Sciences, Kaili University, Kaili, Guizhou 556000
    3 Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201
  • Received:2017-04-13 Accepted:2017-06-30 Online:2017-10-04
  • Long Chunlin E-mail:long@mail.kib.ac.cn
  • About author:# Co-first authors

The Kam (Dong people) fragrant glutinous rice is a group of sticky rice varieties, which have been widely cultivated in Dong areas with great success. Revealing the history and status of the diversity of Kam fragrant glutinous rice is helpful for the timely identification of conservation strategies and implementation plans for preserving these germplasm resources, with respect to the economic development and traditional culture in Dong ethnic areas. The authors and their collaborators carried out research on germplasm diversity of Kam fragrant glutinous rice in Dong areas of Guizhou for 12 years using multiple approaches including ethnobotany, cultural anthropology, and ecology. Results showed that Kam fragrant glutinous rice has been widely grown in the Dong areas for many years. From the beginning of the Yongzheng period of the Qing Dynasty to the foundation of New China, the Dong areas of Guizhou have suffered three large-scale movements transforming glutinous rice into non-glutinous rice, which resulted in greatly reduced plantation areas of Kam fragrant glutinous rice and the number of landraces. At present, there are about 100 glutinous rice landraces in Congjiang, Liping, and Rongjiang counties, a decrease of 72.5% as compared to the 363 landraces investigated in the early 1980s. Even in the Dong villages such as Huanggang and Gaoqian where the Kam fragrant glutinous rice landraces have been maintained carefully, their plantation areas and landrace numbers have been reduced by more than 50%, and this trend is becoming more and more evident. The expansion of hybrid rice over a large scale has greatly influenced the reduction of local landraces. Especially in recent years, the rapid development and transition of social, economic, and cultural aspects of the Dong communities have threatened the Kam fragrant glutinous rice landraces, which are quickly disappearing. The maintenance of the diversity of varieties of Kam fragrant glutinous rice was closely related to the production, life, and traditional culture of the Dong people. It is, therefore, necessary to adopt strategies and measures suitable for the development of the economy and traditional culture for the conservation of these plants in Dong ethnic areas.

Key words: landraces, Dong people, glutinous rice, changing trend, agrobiodiversity

Table 1

Proportion of plantation areas of no-glutinous rice and glutinous rice in southeast Guizhou"

时间 Time 粘稻 No-glutinous rice (%) 糯稻 Glutinous rice (%) 重要事件 Notable event 数据来源 Data source*
明朝时期
Ming Dynasty
少量的 Small amount 大量的 Large amount
清朝时期
Qing Dynasty
40.0 60.0 糯改粘期1
The first stage of substitute no-glutinous rice for glutinous rice
民国时期
Republican period
60.0 40.0 糯改粘期2
The second stage of substitute no-glutinous glutinous rice for glutinous rice
建国初期
Early time of New
China
77.0 23.0 糯改粘期3
The third stage of substitute no-glutinous rice for glutinous rice
1990 81.0 19.0
2000 90.0 10.0
2010 93.0 7.0

Table 2

Proportion of plantation areas of glutinous rice in Liping and Congjiang counties"

黎平县 Liping County 从江县 Congjiang County
时间
Time
粘稻
No-glutinous rice (%)
糯稻
Glutinous rice (%)
时间
Time
粘稻
No-glutinous rice (%)
糯稻
Glutinous rice (%)
1949 20.0 80.0 1955 18.0 82.0
1958 80.0 20.0 1962 62.0 38.0
1962 54.0 46.0 1980 45.0 55.0
1963 94.0 6.0 1991 51.0 49.0
1973 71.0 29.0 1995 72.0 28.0
1980 83.0 17.0 2000 88.0 12.0
2005 80.0 20.0 2005 87.0 13.0
2010 90.0 10.0 2010 89.0 11.0
2013 97.0 3.0 2013 91.0 9.0
2015 98.0 2.0 2015 92.0 6.0

Table 3

Number of “He” landraces in Liping, Congjiang and Rongjiang counties in 1981 and 2015"

时间 Time 类别 Category 黎平县
Liping County
榕江县
Rongjiang County
从江县
Congjiang County
合计
Total
1981 水禾 Aquatic He 粘 Non-glutinous 2 4 14 20
糯 Glutinous 29 81 239 349
旱禾 Xerophytic He 粘 Non-glutinous 1 1
糯 Glutinous 6 8 14
香禾糯 Fragrant glutinous 29 87 247 363
2015 水禾 Aquatic He 粘 Non-glutinous 2 1 2 5
糯 Glutinous 37 6 55 98
旱禾 Xerophytic He 粘 Non-glutinous 1 1
糯 Glutinous 2 2 4
香禾糯 Fragrant glutinous 37 8 57 102

Table 4

Changes of number of glutinous rice landraces in six main Dong villages from 2000 to 2015"

村寨
Village
记忆品种*
Memory variety
2000 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015
黄岗村 Huanggang 29 22 20 21 17 16 15 12
坑洞村 Kengdong 21 15 10 10 8 8 7 7
岩洞村 Yandong 23 16 11 8 7 7 6 5
小黄村 Xiaohuang 18 11 9 8 7 7 7 5
占里村 Zhanli 22 13 11 10 10 9 7 6
高仟村 Gaoqian 27 21 18 18 18 18 16 13
总数 Total 140 98 79 75 67 65 58 48

Table 5

Investigation of migrant worker population in six main Dong villages"

村寨
Village
人口
Population
2000年 2005年 2010年 2015年
外出人数
Migrant number
百分比
%
外出人数
Migrant number
百分比
%
外出人数
Migrant number
百分比
%
外出人数
Migrant number
百分比
%
黄岗村 Huanggang 1,200 30 2.5 56 4.7 77 6.4 110 9.2
坑洞村 Kengdong 1,500 60 4.0 120 8.0 150 10.0 350 23.3
岩洞村 Yandong 6,500 300 4.6 620 9.5 970 14.9 1,560 24.0
小黄村 Xiaohuang 3,000 150 5.0 230 7.7 450 15.0 670 22.3
占里村 Zhanli 791 20 2.5 45 5.7 95 12.0 170 21.5
高仟村 Gaoqian 1,607 60 3.7 140 8.7 190 11.8 320 19.9
总计 Total 14,598 620 4.2 1,211 8.3 1,932 13.2 3,180 21.8

Fig. 1

The relationship between landrace decrease rate and ration of migrant workers"

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