Biodiversity Science ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (9): 1008-1018.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017099

• Original Papers: Animal Diversity • Previous Article     Next Article

Behavioral diversity of semi-captive hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas) on the basis of the PAE coding system

Zhiyuan Ning1, 2, Guixin Dong3, Hong Tang4, Daoying Lan1, *, Huijian Hu1, *   

  1. 1 Guangdong Key Laboratory of Animal Conservation and Resource Utilization, Guangdong Public Laboratory of Wild Animal Conservation and Utilization, Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources, Guangzhou 510260
    2 Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Botany, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650
    3 Guangzhou Chimelong Safari Park, Guangzhou 511430
    4 Guangdong Zhuhai Qi’ao-Dan’gan Island Provincial Nature Reserve, Zhuhai, Guangdong 519000
  • Received:2017-03-27 Accepted:2017-06-15 Online:2017-10-04
  • Lan Daoying,Hu Huijian

Diversity of animal behavior, as an essential part of biodiversity, is closely related to the ex situ conservation and behavior management of rare animals. We recorded the processes, contents, and surrounding habitat, derived from behaviors of semi-captive hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas) living in Guangzhou Chimelong Safari Park between December 2015 and August 2016. Both instantaneous scan sampling and focal animal sampling methods were used. The behavioral data were collected and coded based on the “posture-act-environment” (PAE) coding system which concerns posture, act, environment and the ecological function of behaviors. All observed behaviors of hamadryas baboons were classified and systematically encoded to construct the PAE behavior spectrum, and behavioral diversity was characterized simultaneously. A total of 18 postures, 120 acts and 208 behaviors were distinguished and the relative frequency of each behavior in relation to gender and age was described. Based on the ecological function of behaviors, these recorded behaviors were divided into 18 categories, including forage, eliminate, thermo-regulate, pair, mate, parent, affinitive, superior, threaten, aggression, submission, communicate, aggregate, rest, locomotive, play, beg, and miscellaneous behaviors. This ethogram extends previous behavioral lists and ethograms of non-human primate species constructed by our predecessors. Furthermore, two categories of behavior (play and beg) were enhanced in the non-human primates’ PAE behavior coding system. The characteristics of these two categories of behaviors were described and discussed, and hence, they are proposed to be new adaptive behavior to the captive environment. This research also probed the ecological function and adaptable significance for most behavior categories, separately. Finally, the index of behavioral diversity among different sex-age classes of semi-captive P. hamadryas were calculated on the basis of PAE coding system. Our results suggest that the behavioral diversity among different sex-age classes of semi-captive P. hamadryas were very close to one other at the overall behavioral level, and the more subdivided the behavioral segmentation was, the more obvious the displayed differences. It also proves that the utilization of the PAE coding system to classify, subdivide, and standardize the behavior of animals will improve the study of behavioral diversity.

Key words: Papio hamadryas, ethogram, PAE coding system, behavioral diversity, semi-captivity

Table 1

Posture codes for Papio hamadryas"

姿势 Posture 编码 Code 姿势 Posture 编码 Code
站 Standing 1 跑 Running 10
立 Rearing 2 跳 Jumping 11
坐 Sitting 3 攀爬 Climbing 12
蹲 Squatting 4 靠 Leaning on 13
趴 Groveling 5 爬跨 Mounting 14
躺 Lying 6 抱 Cradling 15
蜷缩 Crouching 7 携挂 Carrying below the abdomen 16
悬挂 Hanging 8 背负 Carrying on the back 17
行 Moving 9 哺 Nipple holding 18

Table 2

Act codes for Papio hamadryas"

动作 Action 编码 Code 动作 Action 编码 Code
头颈部 Head and neck 挖 Dig 59
摆头 Swing 1 拔 Pluck 60
点头 Nod 2 掀 Uncover 61
前伸 Extend forward 3 摘 Pick 62
左转 Turn left 4 剥 Strip 63
右转 Turn right 5 掰 Break off with hand 64
抬头 Raise head 6 拉 Haul 65
低头 Bow head 7 拽 Drag 66
歪头 Wry neck 8 捋 Stroke 67
头顶 Butt 9 揪 Pull 68
嘴部 Mouth 捏 Pinch 69
啃 Gnaw 10 推 Push 70
嚼 Chew 11 举 Lift 71
舔 Lick 12 摇 Shake 72
咬 Bite 13 抱 Embrace 73
吻 Kiss 14 搓 Rub 74
衔 Hold in mouth 15 拍 Slapping 75
吐 Vomit 16 敲 Knock 76
缩唇 Lip shrink 17 甩 Throw 77
张嘴 Open mouth 18 触碰 Touch with finger 78
咂嘴 Lip flipper 19 四肢站立 Standing 79
露齿 Showing teeth 20 三肢站立 Three-legs standing 80
碟牙 Teeth chattering 21 后肢站立 Hind-legs standing 81
伸舌 Tongue out 22 前迈 Step forward 82
吞咽 Swallow 23 后退 Step backward 83
闭嘴 Close mouth 24 侧迈步 Step diagonally 84
吮吸 Suck 25 跑 Running 85
呵欠 Yawn 26 跳 Jumping 86
喷嚏 Sneeze 27 踢 Kick 87
打嗝 Burp 28 踩 Step on 88
咳嗽 Cough 29 翘腿 Leg raised 89
鸣叫 Bleat 30 攀爬 Climbing 90
哀鸣 Whine 31 单前肢击地 One foreleg hits 91
尖叫 Scream 32 前肢击地 Forelegs hit 92
吠叫 Bark 33 单前肢弯曲 One foreleg bends 93
嚎叫 Howl 34 前肢弯曲 Forelegs bent 94
吼叫 Roar 35 单前肢伸直 One foreleg straightens 95
低吼 Growl 36 前肢伸直 Forelegs straighten 96
眼耳鼻 Eye, ear and nose 单后肢弯曲 One hind-leg bends 97
闭眼 Close eyes 37 后肢弯曲 Hind-legs bend 98
眨眼 Blink 38 单后肢伸直 One hind-leg straightens 99
瞪眼 Stare 39 后肢伸直 Hind-legs straighten 100
注视 Watch 40 腰荐腹部 Hindquarter
瞥视 Glance 41 抖 Shiver 101
眺望 Overlook 42 平腰 Plane 102
展耳 Unfurl ears 43 伸腰 Stretch 103
耳后伏 Ears laid back 44 弯腰 Bend 104
呼气 Exhale 45 塌腰 Cave 105
吸气 Inhale 46 左转身 Turn left 106
嗅 Sniff 47 右转身 Turn right 107
触 Touch with muzzle 48 翘尾 Tail raised 108
面部 Face 上卷尾 Tail up-arched 109
皱眉 Frown 49 下卷尾 Tail down-arched 110
抬眉 Brow lift 50 抬尾 Tail shake 111
颊囊填充 Fill in the cheek pouch 51 垂尾 Tail down 112
四肢 Limbs 排粪 Defecate 113
按 Press 52 排尿 Urinate 114
握 Hold 53 爬跨 Mount 115
揽 Pull into arms 54 勃起 Erect 116
扶 Lean on 55 插入 Insert 117
抓 Grasp 56 抽动 Vellicate 118
理毛 Groom 57 射精 Ejaculate 119
挠 Scratch 58 退下 Withdraw 120

Table 3

Environments and their codes of behaviors for Papio hamadryas"

Biotic (E1)
Abiotic (E2)
乔木 Arbor 1
灌丛 Shrub 2
崖壁 Cliff 3
岩坡 Rock slope 4
岩石 Stone 5
裸地 Bare ground 6
沙地 Sandlot 7
水源 Water 8
木桥 Wooden bridge 9
阳面 Solar slope 10
阴面 Lunar slope 11
半阳面 Semi-solar slope 12
Man-made object for enrichment
雄性 Male 14
雌性 Female 15
婴幼猴 Infant 16
青少年猴 Juvenile 17
亚成体猴 Subadult 18
雌猴与婴幼猴 Female and infant 19
家庭群 One male unit 20
混合群 Mixed group 21
聚合群 Large semi-cohesive band 22
单一个体 Single 23

Table 4

Behavioral diversity of different sex-age classes of semi-captive Papio hamadryas"

Sex-age classes
Behaviors of inelasticity
Behaviors of elasticity
Playing behavior
Begging behavior
H r H r H r H r H r
成年雄性 Adult male 3.8489 0.9230 1.5189 0.6542 2.3300 0.6297 1 1 0.9785 0.9785
成年雌性 Adult female 3.8953 0.9341 1.4554 0.6268 2.4399 0.6594 1.0612 0.6695 2.9437 0.9812
亚成年 Subadult 3.7118 0.8901 1.6922 0.7288 2.0196 0.5458 2.2028 0.7846 0.8453 0.8453
青少年 Juvenile 3.5498 0.8685 1.6552 0.7129 1.8946 0.5285 3.1518 0.8282 2.1793 0.9386
婴幼猴 Infant 3.3094 0.8943 1.5260 0.6572 1.7834 0.5945 2.9691 0.8067 - -
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[1] JIANG Zhi-Gang, LI Chun-Wang, PENG Jian-Jun, HU Hui-Jian. Structure, elasticity and diversity of animal behavior [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2001, 09(3): 265-274.
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