Biodiversity Science ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (8): 948-956.doi: 10.17520/biods.2016002

• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Status of vascular plant species on Hainan Island

Yukai Chen1, 2, Xiaobo Yang1, *(), Donghai Li1, Wenxing Long1   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Protection and Development Utilization of Tropical Crop Germplasm Resources of Ministry of Education, Hainan University, Haikou 570228
    2 Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Tropical Plant and Animal Ecology, College of Life Sciences, Hainan Normal University, Haikou 571158
  • Received:2016-01-03 Accepted:2016-05-25 Online:2016-09-02
  • Yang Xiaobo

Maintaining plant diversity on tropical islands is a priority for biodiversity conservation. Hainan Island, located in the northern tropics, is the second largest island in China with high plant diversity. Several updated plant lists of local flora have been published after decades of field investigations. In this paper, we investigated the plant diversity on Hainan Island by conducting extensive field surveys and a literature review. Results indicated that, as of December 2015, there were 6,036 vascular plants recorded on Hainan Island with voucher specimens or practical materials. Among these species, 1,220 species were revised as synonymously, 4,579 species were wild (including 483 endemic and 512 rare and endangered species), 163 were naturalized species (including 57 invasive species) and 1,294 species were cultivated species. Since the publication of Flora Hainanica in 1964-1977, a large proportion of newly recorded species were mainly wild or introduced species, and accounted for 35.9% and 75.9% of their corresponding totals, respectively.

Key words: flora, rare and endangered plants, endemic plants, naturalized plants, invasive plants, introduced plants

Fig. 1

A map of field surveys on plant diversity on Hainan Island"

Table 1

The top ten families and genera with the largest number of species in Hainan Island"

科名 Family 种数 No. of species 分布类型 Areal type 属名 Genus 种数 No. of species 分布类型 Areal type
兰科 Orchidaceae 298 世界广布 Cosmopolitan 冬青属 Ilex 42 泛热带分布 Pantropic
禾本科 Poaceae 290 世界广布 Cosmopolitan 耳草属 Hedyotis 42 泛热带分布 Pantropic
豆科 Fabaceae 222 世界广布 Cosmopolitan 榕属 Ficus 40 泛热带分布 Pantropic
茜草科 Rubiaceae 208 世界广布 Cosmopolitan 蒲桃属 Syzygium 39 旧世界热带
Old World Tropics
莎草科 Cyperaceae 181 世界广布 Cosmopolitan 飘拂草属 Fimbristylis 35 泛热带分布 Pantropic
大戟科 Euphorbiaceae 159 泛热带分布 Pantropic 莎草属 Cyperus 33 世界广布 Cosmopolitan
菊科 Asteraceae 133 世界广布 Cosmopolitan 紫金牛属 Ardisia 31 泛热带分布 Pantropic
樟科 Lauraceae 108 泛热带分布 Pantropic 柯属 Lithocarpus 29 东亚和北美洲间断分布 Eastern Asian and Northern American disjunction
壳斗科 Fagaceae 75 北温带和南温带间断分布 North Temperate & South Temperate disjuncted 山矾属 Symplocos 26 泛热带分布
爵床科 Acanthaceae 73 泛热带分布 Pantropic 簕竹属 Bambusa 24 泛热带分布 Pantropic
[1] Boo CM, Kartini OH, Ouyang CL (2006) 1001 Garden Plants in Singapore. National Parks Board Publications, Singapore.
[2] Campbell DG, Hammond HD (1989) Floristic Inventory of Tropical Countries: the Status of Plant Systematics, Collections, and Vegetation, Plus Recommendations for the Future. The New York Botanical Garden, New York.
[3] Christian AK, Jacques T, Sophie M, Herve RR, Chantal BP, Stephanie MC (2012) The introduced flora of Madagascar. Biological Invasions, 14, 875-888.
[4] Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) (2012) The CITES Appendices I/II.(accessed on 2013-06-10
[5] Compilation Group of China’s Biodiversity: A Country Study(1998) China’s Biodiversity: A Country Study. China Environmental Science Press, Beijing.
[6] Editorial Committee of Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae(1959-2004) Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae. Tomus (2-80). Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[中国科学院中国植物志编辑委员会(1959-2004) 中国植物志(2-80卷). 科学出版社, 北京.]
[7] Government of Singapore Privacy Statement (2007) Singapore Botanic Gardens.. (accessed on 2013-06-05.
[8] International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) (2013) The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, Version 2013. 1.. (accessed on 2013-07-02.
[9] Javier FO, Wang FG, Wang ZS, Xing FW, Liu H, Xu H, Xu WX, Luo YB, Song XQ, Stephan G, David EB, Mike M, An SQ (2010) Endemic seed plant species from Hainan Island: a checklist. Botanical Review, 76, 295-345.
[10] Kalmar A, Currie DJ (2006) A global model of island biogeography. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 15, 72-81.
[11] Lin ZQ, Yang XB, Chen YK, Li DH, Huang J, Long C (2016) Local wild vascular plant flora in Hainan. Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops, 37, 351-358. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[林泽钦, 杨小波, 陈玉凯, 李东海, 黄瑾, 龙成 (2016) 海南本地野生维管植物区系研究. 热带作物学报, 37, 351-358.]
[12] Liu GD (2010) Poaceae Plants in Hainan. Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[刘国道 (2010) 海南禾草志. 科学出版社, 北京.]
[13] Liu GD, Bai CJ (2012) Cyperaceae Plants in Hainan. Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[刘国道, 白昌军 (2012) 海南莎草志. 科学出版社, 北京.]
[14] MacArthur RH, Wilson EO(1967) The Theory of Island Biogeography. Princeton University Press, New Jersey.
[15] Madsen K (1999) Notes on Chinese-American botanical collaboration. Arnoldia, 58, 12-16.
[16] Missouri Botanical Garden (2013) Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Madagascar. Published on the Internet. (accessed on 2013-06-01
[17] Mittermeier RA, Gil RR, Hoffman M, Pilgrim J, Brooks T, Mittermeier CG, Lamoreux J, da Fonseca G (2004) Hotspots Revisited: Earth’s Biologically Richest and Most Threatened Terrestrial Ecoregions. Agrupacion Sierra Madre, Mexico.
[18] Pelser PB, Barcelona JF, Nickrent DL (2011) Digital Flora of the Philippines.. (accessed on 2013-06-11
[19] Research Center for Biodiversity, Academia Sinica (2013) Catalogue of Life in Taiwan.. (accessed on 2013-06-11
[20] Rollins RC (1956) Elmer Drew Merrill, administrator and botanist. Science, 123, 831-832.
[21] South China Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (1964-1977) Flora Hainanica. Tomus (1-4). Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[中国科学院华南植物研究所(1964-1977) 海南植物志(1-4卷). 科学出版社, 北京.]
[22] South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences(1987-2011) Flora of Guangdong, Vols. (1-10). Guangdong Science and Technology Press, Guangdong. (in Chinese)
[中国科学院华南植物园(1987-2011) 广东植物志(1-10卷). 广东科技出版社, 广东.]
[23] [中华人民共和国国家林业局和农业部 (1999) 国家重点保护野生植物名录(第一批).]. (accessed on 2013-06-20
[24] Tang SC, Lü SH, He CX, Li XK, Pan YM, Pu GZ (2008) The alien invasive plants in Guangxi. Guihaia, 28, 775-779. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[唐赛春, 吕仕洪, 何成新, 李先琨, 潘玉梅, 蒲高忠 (2008) 广西的外来入侵植物. 广西植物, 28, 775-779.]
[25] Wang F, Wang RJ, Zhuang PD, Guo Q, Li ZR (2009) Present status and management strategies of invasive plants in Guangdong Province. Chinese Journal of Ecology, 28, 2088-2093. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[王芳, 王瑞江, 庄平弟, 郭强, 李振荣 (2009) 广东外来入侵植物现状和防治策略. 生态学杂志, 28, 2088-2093.]
[26] Wang FG, Qin XS, Chen HF, Zhang RJ, Liu DM, Xing FW (2006) Endemic plants in limestone region in Hainan Island. Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Botany, 14, 45-54. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[王发国, 秦新生, 陈红锋, 张荣京, 刘东明, 邢福武 (2006) 海南岛石灰岩特有植物的初步研究. 热带亚热带植物学报, 14, 45-54.]
[27] Wang FG, Xing FW, Ye HG, Chen XY, Tan GG, Mai BL (2004) Preliminarily study on invasive alien species in Macau. Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Sunyatseni, 43(6), 105-110. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[王发国, 邢福武, 叶华谷, 陈孝永, 谭国光, 麦保林 (2004) 澳门的外来入侵植物. 中山大学学报(自然科学版), 43(6), 105-110.]
[28] Wang S, Xie Y (2004) China Species Red List, Vol. 1: Red List. Higher Education Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[汪松, 解焱 (2004) 中国物种红色名录, 第1卷: 红色名录. 高等教育出版社, 北京.]
[29] Whittaker RJ, Fernández-Palacios JM (2007) Island Biogeography: Ecology, Evolution, and Conservation. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
[30] Wu DL (1994) A Checklist of Flowering Plants of Islands and Reefs of Hainan and Guangdong Province. Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[吴德邻 (1994) 海南及广东沿海岛屿植物名录. 科学出版社, 北京.]
[31] Wu ZY, Zhou ZK, Sun H, Li DZ, Peng H (2006) Areal Types of Seed Plants and the Origin and Differentiation. Yunnan Science and Technology Press, Kunming. (in Chinese)
[吴征镒, 周浙昆, 孙航, 李德铢, 彭华 (2006) 种子植物分布区类型及其起源和分化. 云南科技出版社, 昆明.]
[32] Wu ZY, Raven PH, Hong DY (1994-2014) Flora of China, Vols. 2-25. Science Press, Beijing & Missouri Botanical Gardens, St. Louis, Missouri.
[33] Xing FW, Wu DL, Li ZX, Ye HG, Chen BH (1995) Endemic plants of Hainan Island. Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Botany, 3(1), 1-12. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[邢福武, 吴德邻, 李泽贤, 叶华谷, 陈炳辉 (1995) 海南岛特有植物的研究. 热带亚热带植物学报, 3(1), l-12.]
[34] Xing FW, Zhou JS, Wang FG, Zeng QW, Yi QF, Liu DM (2012) Inventory of Plant Species Diversity of Hainan. Huazhong University of Science and Technology Press, Wuhan. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[邢福武, 周劲松, 王发国, 曾庆文, 易绮斐, 刘东明 (2012) 海南植物物种多样性编目. 华中科技大学出版社, 武汉.]
[35] Xu CD, Lu SG (2006) Invasive plants in Yunnan Province. Guihaia, 26, 227-234. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[徐成东, 陆树刚 (2006) 云南的外来入侵植物. 广西植物, 26, 227-234.]
[36] Yang XB (2009) Urban Plant Diversity. China Agriculture Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[杨小波 (2009) 城市植物多样性. 中国农业出版社, 北京.]
[37] Yang XB (2013) Checklist of Plant Species in Hainan. Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[杨小波 (2013) 海南植物名录. 科学出版社, 北京.]
[38] Yang XB, Wu QS, Li DH (2011) Study of Nature Reserve Forest Vegetation in National Forest Ecosystem in Hainan. Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[杨小波, 吴庆书, 李东海 (2011) 海南岛陆域国家级森林生态系统自然保护区森林植被研究. 科学出版社, 北京.]
[39] Ying TS, Hsu KS (2002) An analysis of the flora of seed plants of Taiwan, China: its nature, characteristics, and relations with the flora of the mainland. Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica, 40, 1-51. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[应俊生, 徐国士 (2002) 中国台湾种子植物区系的性质, 特点及其与大陆植物区系的关系. 植物分类学报, 40, 1-51.]
[40] Zang RG, Ding Y (2009) Forest recovery on abandoned logging roads in a tropical montane rain forest of Hainan Island, China. Acta Oecologica, 35, 462-470.
[41] Zhang HD (2001) The diversity of the Hainan flora. Ecological Science, 20(1), 1-10. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[张宏达 (2001) 海南植物区系的多样性. 生态科学, 20(1), 1-10.]
[42] Zhang YB, Ma KP (2008) Geographic distribution patterns and status assessment of threatened plants in China. Biodiversity and Conservation, 17, 1783-1798.
[1] Tu Yanli,Wang Liping,Wang Xilong,Wang Linlin,Duan Yuanwen. (2019) Status of invasive plants on local pollination networks: A case study of Tagetes minuta in Tibet based on pollen grains from pollinators . Biodiv Sci, 27(3): 306-313.
[2] Wang Xiaoyue,Zhu Xinxin,Yang Juan,Liu Yunjing,Tang Xiaoxin. (2019) Variation in style length and the effect on reproductive success in Chinese plums (Armeniaca mume) . Biodiv Sci, 27(2): 159-167.
[3] SUN Hui-Min, JIANG Jiang, CUI Li-Na, ZHANG Shui-Feng, ZHANG Jin-Chi. (2018) Effects of Spartina alterniflora invasion on soil organic carbon composition of mangrove wetland in Zhangjiang River Estuary . Chin J Plan Ecolo, 42(7): 774-784.
[4] Bao Yu, Qiao Yanan, Yan Xingfu, Wang Lingyan, Qu Wenjing, Tang Zhanhui. (2018) Prelimary Study of the Pollination Biology of Lychnis cognata and L. wilfordii . Chin Bull Bot, 53(5): 634-642.
[5] Hao Tian,Wanjin Liao. (2018) Consequences of clonal growth on pollinator visitation in flowering plants . Biodiv Sci, 26(5): 468-475.
[6] Yuxian Wang,Zuojun Liu,Zhigang Zhao,Meng Hou,Xiaorui Zhang,Wanling Lü. (2018) Responses of floral longevity to pollination environments in 11 species from two alpine meadows . Biodiv Sci, 26(5): 510-518.
[7] JIN Yu-Xi, LIU Fang, ZHANG Jun, HAN Meng-Qi, WANG Zhong-Wu, QU Zhi-Qiang, HAN Guo-Dong. (2018) Net ecosystem carbon exchange characteristics in Stipa breviflora desert steppe with different stocking rates . Chin J Plan Ecolo, 42(3): 361-371.
[8] WANG Xiang, ZHU Ya-Qiong, ZHENG Wei, GUAN Zheng-Xuan, SHENG Jian-Dong. (2018) Soil respiration features of mountain meadows under four typical land use types in Zhaosu Basin . Chin J Plan Ecolo, 42(3): 382-396.
[9] Haibin Yu,Yili Zhang,Linshan Liu,Zhao Chen,Wei Qi. (2018) Floristic characteristics and diversity patterns of seed plants endemic to the Tibetan Plateau . Biodiv Sci, 26(2): 130-137.
[10] Lan Xiao,Linting Zhang,Shengchang Yang,Zhihan Zheng,Degang Jiang. (2018) Flora and species composition similarity of the uninhabited islands in the nearshore Xiamen . Biodiv Sci, 26(11): 1212-1222.
[11] Hai Ren. (2017) The role of botanical gardens in reintroduction of plants . Biodiv Sci, 25(9): 945-950.
[12] Quan CHEN, Ke-Ming MA. (2017) Effects of Spartina alterniflora invasion on enrichment of sedimental heavy metals in a mangrove wetland and the underlying mechanisms . Chin J Plan Ecolo, 41(4): 409-417.
[13] Hua Huang,Zhifa Chen,Detuan Liu,Guoxing He,Ronghua He,Dezhu Li,Kun Xu. (2017) Species composition and community structure of the Yulongxueshan (Jade Dragon Snow Mountains) forest dynamics plot in the cold tem- perate spruce-fir forest, Southwest China . Biodiv Sci, 25(3): 255-264.
[14] Hua Zhu. (2017) Tropical flora of southern China . Biodiv Sci, 25(2): 204-217.
[15] Xiuqin Ci,Jie Li. (2017) Phylogenetic diversity and its application in floristics and biodiversity conservation . Biodiv Sci, 25(2): 175-181.
Full text