Biodiversity Science ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (6): 701-708.doi: 10.17520/biods.2015283

• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Geographic data management, refined route design and precise navigation in biodiversity field surveys

Bin Chen*()   

  1. Shanghai Chenshan Botanical Garden, Shanghai 201602
  • Online:2016-06-20
  • Chen Bin

Field surveys are basic methods for biodiversity research and conservation. During field surveys, geographic conditions are usually complex, knowledge about local geographical information, design of routes for surveying, and the precision of field navigation directly influence the efficiency of fieldwork, and even personal security. Using Google Earth, we can convert and edit various geographic data and overlay these onto a 3 dimensional model of the Earth, to create a comprehensive geo-database. Then, we can choose the location of plots and design the routes of field surveys. By using OruxMaps, which can be installed on an Android mobile device, we can download and compile online maps into offline maps, find current locations, auto-record track logs, display designed routes onto the maps and precisely navigate to target locations. By using these tools interactively, we can easily manage the geographic data, design the routes in field survey and precisely navigate in the field. Thus, we not only enhance the efficiency of fieldwork but also improve personal safety during field surveys.

Key words: field survey, geographic data management, route design, navigation, Google Earth, OruxMaps

Fig. 1

The interface of Google Earth. (A) Map browser zone: to move or zoom in/out the map and control data items by mouse operations; (B) Place mark data editor and ruler: to select and use by mouse clicks on icons; (C) Geo-data management area: right click on “My places” to enter quick menu to create folders, save and manage user geo-data; (D) Google Earth data layer management area: to choose and display data transferred from Google’s servers."

Fig. 2

Adding place-marks onto satellite maps. (A) Mountains and provincial capitals of China; (B) Mountains and county names of western Zhejiang Province; (C) The Gutian Mountain and nearby towns in Kaihua County, western Zhejiang Province."

Fig. 3

The circles with radius of 1 km, 2 km, 3 km, 4 km, 5 km, 10 km, 20 km, 50 km and with center points in the 24 ha Gutianshan Forest Plot. These are useful for regional biodiversity survey planning and route design."

Fig. 4

The plot grids of the 24 ha Gutian Mountain Forest Plots displayed upon satellite map by Google Earth"

Fig. 5

To overlay and correct digitized printed map, kilometer grids of Gutianshan National Nature Reserve on Google Earth, then recognize and mark the location names."

Fig. 6

The route design for the Tianmu Mountain field exercise of the Plant Taxonomy Training Course of Chinese Union of Botanical Garden on June 7th, 2015. The Fuyu Hotel is the start point, the three lines with different colors are three routes to different directions, the outer ring with radius 1 km confines the area of field exercise."

Fig. 7

The main interface of the software OruxMaps 5.5.22"


功能名称 使用步骤 生物野外调查中的应用
浏览在线地图并制作离线地图 在移动设备上安装OruxMaps软件, 使用Wifi连接互联网; 运行OruxMaps软件, 依次点击“地图”菜单→“切换地图”→“Online”→选择一个地图→移动地图, 找到拟考察的目标区域; 依次点击“地图”菜单→“下载地图”→点击对角点选定目标区域范围→打勾确定→勾选所需的地图图层→输入离线地图名字→下载 可以下载谷歌地球的卫星图, 单个离线地图包的数据量可达1 GB, 地图包数量不限。在开展野外调查工作之前, 可以对考察区域制作多个不同分辨率的离线地图包, 包括一个较低分辨率但地理范围较大的和若干较高分辨率但地理范围较小的地图包。地图包可以拷出进行备份和共享。
浏览使用离线地图 依次点击“地图”菜单→“切换地图”→“Offline”→点选所需的离线地图包 在野外工作时, 不需要通信流量即可使用高精度离线地图数据。程序会根据当前位置, 自动切换合适的离线地图包。
GPS定位 依次点击“轨迹”菜单→“开启GPS” 野外工作时在地图上定位, 确定当前位置。
记录GPS轨迹 依次点击“轨迹”菜单→“开始记录” 记录野外工作轨迹, 记录走过的路线, 可以转换为导航路线, 用于原路返回导航; 将调查路线存档, 可用于今后回访调查导航。
GPS轨迹数据导出 依次点击“路线”菜单→“管理”→点选目标轨迹→“导出为”→“GPX” GPS轨迹中包含一系列轨迹点, 每个轨迹点包含时间、经度、纬度、海拔等信息, 可用于调查路线存档、展示和通过时间匹配计算相关调查数据的GPS坐标。
创建路点 依次点击“路点”菜单→“创建”→填写路点信息→保存 创建一条包含经纬度坐标、名称、类型、描述等信息的路点数据, 并在地图上显示。可以定制路点的类型、图标和存储目录, 用于野外数据采集。
创建照片路点 依次点击“路点”菜单→“照片路点”→拍照→保存 创建一条包含照片的路点数据。
导入kml/kmz数据进行导航 将在谷歌地球上设计好的调查路线或者历史调查轨迹保存为kml或kmz文件, 拷入手机OruxMaps\Tracklogs目录; 依次点击“路线”菜单→“载入文件”→选择拷入的kml/kmz/gpx等格式文件→确认导航选项 通过这个功能, 可以在卫星图上随时浏览设计好的野外工作路线或历史调查轨迹, 进行准确导航。
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