生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (8): 886-895.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2017098

• 生物编目 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国哺乳动物多样性(第2版)

蒋志刚1,6,*(), 刘少英2, 吴毅3, 蒋学龙4,6, 周开亚5   

  1. 1 (中国科学院动物研究所, 北京 100101)
    2 (四川林业科学研究院, 成都 610081)
    3 (广州大学生命科学学院, 广州 510006)
    4 (中国科学院昆明动物研究所, 昆明 650223)
    5 (南京师范大学生命科学学院, 南京 210023)
    6 (中国科学院大学, 北京 100049)
  • 收稿日期:2017-03-27 接受日期:2017-07-09 出版日期:2017-08-20 发布日期:2017-08-31
  • 通讯作者: 蒋志刚
  • 作者简介:# 共同第一作者 Co-first authors
  • 基金资助:
    环境保护部“生物多样性保护专项”、国家科技基础性工作专项(2013FY110300)和国家重点研发项目(2016YFC0503303)

China’s mammal diversity (2nd edition)

Zhigang Jiang1,6,*(), Shaoying Liu2, Yi Wu3, Xuelong Jiang4,6, Kaiya Zhou5   

  1. 1 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
    2 Sichuan Academy of Forestry, Chengdu 610081
    3 School of Life Sciences, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006
    4 Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223
    5 College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023
    6 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2017-03-27 Accepted:2017-07-09 Online:2017-08-20 Published:2017-08-31
  • Contact: Jiang Zhigang

摘要:

鉴于哺乳动物分类系统的修订、中国哺乳动物的新发现以及保育实践的需要, 有必要更新中国哺乳动物多样性编目。在收集整理2015年3月以来发表的中国哺乳动物新种和新分布记录种的基础上, 我们采用新的分类系统, 综合作者的最新研究, 补充了以前知之甚少的藏南地区哺乳动物信息, 更新了中国哺乳动物多样性编目。主要修改有: (1)将鲸偶蹄类(Cetartiodactyla)列为总目, 将鲸类与偶蹄类恢复为鲸目(Cetacea)和偶蹄目(Artiodactyla); (2)劳亚食虫目增加了新种霍氏缺齿鼩(Chodsigoa hoffmanni)、林猬一新种(Mesechinus sp.)及由亚种提升为种的烟黑缺齿鼩(Chodsigoa furva); (3)翼手目增补了梵净山管鼻蝠(Murina fanjingshanensis)、渡濑氏鼠耳蝠(Myotis rufoniger)和葛氏菊头蝠(Rhinolophus subbadius), 删除了毛须鼠耳蝠(Myotis hirsutus)和琉球长翼蝠(Miniopterus fuscus); (4)灵长目增补了高黎贡白眉长臂猿(Hoolock tianxing)、戴帽叶猴(Trachypithecus pileatus)、懒猴(Nycticebus coucang)和西白眉长臂猿(Hoolock hoolock); (5)食肉目增补了分布在中国藏南的懒熊(Melursus ursinus)、亚洲胡狼(Canis aureus)、孟加拉狐(Vulpes bengakensis)、灰獴(Herpestes edwardsii)和渔猫(Felis viverrinus); (6)依据Wilson和Mittermeier Handbook of the Mammals of the World, Vol. 2, Ungulates (2012)的偶蹄类分类系统, 重新厘定了中国偶蹄目动物分类。偶蹄目增加了阿尔泰盘羊(Ovis ammon)、哈萨克盘羊(O. collium)、高黎贡羚牛(Budorcas taxicolor)和印度麂(Muntiacus muntjak)。将中国境内的梅花鹿合并为Cervus nippon、驼鹿合并为Alces alces。删去了阿拉善马鹿(Cervus alashanicus)、四川马鹿(C. macneilli)和矮岩羊(Psuodois sharferi)。将分布在西双版纳的小鼷鹿定为鼷鹿未定种(Tragulus sp.); (7)鲸目增加了恒河豚(Platanista gangetica), 删除了长喙真海豚(Delphinus capensis), 将短喙真海豚(D. delphis)的中文名修改为真海豚; (8)啮齿目增加了小板齿鼠(Bandicota bengalensis)、小猪尾鼠(Typhlomys nanus)、墨脱松田鼠(Neodon medogensis)、聂拉木松田鼠(N. nyalamensis)以及由亚种提升为种的大猪尾鼠(Typhlomys daloushanensis); 还增加了甘肃鼢鼠(Myospalax cansus)、比氏鼯鼠(Biswamoyopterus biswasi)、白腹鼠(Niviventer niviventer)、印度小鼠(Mus booduga)。删去了休氏壮鼠(Hadromys humei)。同时厘清了我国田鼠亚科Arvicolini族的分类; (9)兔形目增加了粗毛兔(Caprolagus hispidus)和尼泊尔黑兔(Lepus nigricollis)。理清了鼠兔属(Ochotona)的分类, 降级了5个鼠兔种, 提升了4个鼠兔亚种为种, 增加了5个新种。中国有29种鼠兔分布, 北美鼠兔(O. princeps)、斑颈鼠兔(O. collaris)、荷氏鼠兔(O. hoffinanni)、阿富汗鼠兔(O. rufescens)和草原鼠兔(O. pusilla)在中国没有分布。与2015年的《中国哺乳动物多样性》比较, 本编目删除了21个种, 新增了41个种, 其中, 新增了藏南地区分布的哺乳动物16种。截至2017年8月底, 中国记录到哺乳动物13目56科248属693种, 比《中国哺乳动物多样性》多1目1科3属20种。人们对18种中国哺乳动物的分类地位尚存在争议。中国有146种特有哺乳动物, 占中国哺乳动物总数的21%。兔形目、劳亚食虫目和偶蹄目中的特有种比率分别为37%、35%和25%。

关键词: 哺乳类, 长臂猿属, 乌叶猴属, 松田鼠属, 缺齿鼩属, 猪尾鼠属, 鼠兔属

Abstract:

Due to recent modifications of mammalian taxonomy, discoveries of mammalogy in China, and conservation needs of the country, China’s mammal diversity inventory is in urgent need of an update. We collected new species and records of mammal species in China from the literature since March 2015, adopted the new taxonomy, incorporated our own research, and added mammalian species of the Zangnan Region, to renew the inventory of mammal diversity in the country. The major changes in the new version of the inventory are the elevation of the order Cetartiodactyla to the super order Cetartiodactyla and the split of the order Cetartiodactyla in Jiang et al (2015) into orders Cetacea and Artiodactyla, respectively. Chodsigoa hoffmanni C. furva and Mesechinus sp. were added to the order Eulipotyphla. In the order Chiroptera, Murina fanjingshanensis, Myotis rufoniger and Rhinolophus subbadius were added, while Myotis hirsutus and Miniopterus fuscus were deleted from the inventory. In the order Primates, Hoolock tianxing, Trachypithecus pileatus, Nycticebus coucang and Hoolock hoolock were added to the inventory. In the order Carnivora, Melursus ursinus, Canis aureus, Vulpes bengakensis, Herpestes edwardsii, and Felis viverrinus were added. We reclassified the species in the order Artiodactyla according to the taxonomy of the Handbook of the Mammals of the World, Vol. 2, Ungulates. Ovis ammon, O. collium, Budorcas taxicolor, and Muntiacus muntjak were added to the order. All sika deer in the country were grouped as a single species, Cervus nippon, and all moose were grouped as a single species, Alces alces. Cervus alashanicus and C. macneilli as well as the dwarf blue sheep, Psuodois sharferi, were deleted, and the species of the Tragulus in Xishuangbanna was listed as Tragulus sp. In the order Cetacea, Platanista gangetica was added while Delphinus capensis was deleted. In the order Rodentia, new species, Typhlomys nanus, Neodon medogensis and N. nyalamensis, Bandicota bengalensis as well as Myospalax cansus, Biswamoyopterus biswasi, Niviventer niviventer, Mus booduga; and one species, Typhlomys daloushanensis, which was elevated from the status of subspecies, were added to the inventory, however, Hadromys humei was deleted from the inventory. The taxonomy of Arvicolini of Cricetidae was renewed. Caprolagus hispidus and Lepus nigricollis were added to the order Lagomorpha and the taxonomy of Ochotona was renewed, with 5 species downgraded from the status of species to subspecies while 4 were elevated from subspecies to species. Altogether there are 29 pika species in China. However, O. princeps, O. collaris, O. hoffinanni, O. rufescens and O. pusilla are not found in the country. The new inventory of China’s mammals has 13 orders, 56 families, 248 genera and 693 species. Compared with that reported by Jiang et al (2015), there is now an additional order, family, three genera and 20 species in the new mammalian diversity inventory. Of the mammalian species in country, the statuses of 18 species, mostly rodents, are still in dispute amongst mammalogists. There are 146 endemic mammalian species in China, which accounted for 21% of the total mammal species in the country. Of those endemic species by order, the highest endemic rate is found in Lagomorpha (37%), followed by Eulipotyphla (35%) and Artiodactyla (25%). Overall, China has the richest mammal diversity in the world.

Key words: mammals, Hoolock, Trachypithecus, Neodon, Chodsigoa, Typhlomys, Ochotona