生物多样性 ›› 2000, Vol. 08 ›› Issue (1): 65-72.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2000009

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

莱州湾渔业资源群落结构和生物多样性的变化

金显仕,邓景耀   

  1. (中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所,  青岛 266071)
  • 收稿日期:1999-04-14 修回日期:1999-08-05 出版日期:2000-02-20 发布日期:2000-02-20

Variations in community structure of fishery resources and biodiversity in the Laizhou Bay, Shandong

JINXian-Shi, DENG Jing-Yao   

  1. Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute , Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences , Qingdao 266071
  • Received:1999-04-14 Revised:1999-08-05 Online:2000-02-20 Published:2000-02-20

摘要:

通过1959~1999年间4次按季节进行的底拖网调查,分析了莱州湾渔业资源和优势种组成以及群落结构的变化。结果表明,1998年平均渔获量大幅度下降,分别仅为1959、1982和1992~1993年的3.3%、7.3%和11.0%;虽然季节间优势种有一定的变动,但鳀鱼、黄鲫、斑鰶和赤鼻稜鳀等小型中上层鱼类自80年代以来已替代了带鱼、小黄鱼成为优势种;渔业资源群落结构也随时间发生了较大的变化,多样性自1959~1982年增加,然后呈下降趋势。   
        外部的扰动特别是捕捞,在中等强度下会使鱼类多样性增加,但过高的捕捞强度又会使多样性下降。目前莱州湾渔业资源群落结构简单,处于较不平衡状态,群落演替将继续,在外部扰动大幅度降低的情况下,具有较强恢复力的小型中上层种类资源能够很快恢复和增长。

Abstract: Based on seasonal bottom trawl surveys from 1959 to 1999 , the variations in fishery resources , dominant species composition and community structure were analyzed. The results indicate that the biomass has continuously declined from 1959. The current biomass account for only 3. 3 % , 7. 3 % and 11. 0 % of that in 1959 , 1982 and 1992~1993 , respectively. Although dominant species vary in different seasons , the traditional large- sized demersal species , such as largehead hairtail ( Trichiurus haumela) and small yellow croaker ( Pseudosciaena polyactis) , have been replaced by small pelagic species , such as anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus) , half-financhovy ( Setipinna taty ) , gizzard- shad ( Clupanodon punctatus ) , and rednose anchovy ( Thrissa kammalensis) . The community structure has also changed , while species diversity increased from 1959 to 1982 and then decreased continuously. The disturbance , particularly fishing , may increase the diversity at intermediate intensity , but too high fishing intensity may lead to diversity decrease. At present , the community structure is simple at un-equilibrium state in the Laizhou Bay , the community succession will continue , and the biomass of small pelagic species with high resilience may recover and increase if the disturbance is significantly reduced.