生物多样性 ›› 2003, Vol. 11 ›› Issue (3): 188-196.doi: 10.17520/biods.2003025

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

高榕小蜂群落结构及物种多样性的初步研究

谷海燕, 杨大荣   

  1. (中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园,昆明 650223)
  • 收稿日期:2002-12-06 修回日期:2003-03-27 出版日期:2003-05-20
  • 通讯作者: 谷海燕

Community structure and species diversity of fig wasps from Ficus altissima

GU Hai-Yan, YANG Da-Rong   

  1. Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden,Chinese Academy of Science,Kunming 650223
  • Received:2002-12-06 Revised:2003-03-27 Online:2003-05-20
  • Contact: GU Hai-Yan

在西双版纳地区采集干、湿两季5个样株的高榕(Ficus altissima)隐头果,单果收蜂,鉴定蜂种,共获高榕隐头果内小蜂标本18 000多号,隶属膜翅目5科9属14种。然后对样株小蜂群落结构、组成、性比及物种多样性进行对比研究。小蜂群落的结构和组成在干、湿两季有着明显的差异:湿季隐头果内的小蜂种类比干季丰富。另外,受人为干扰较少的样株隐头果内小蜂种类比受严重干扰的样株丰富。高榕的非传粉小蜂主要由造瘿者组成,寄生小蜂和寄居性小蜂仅占很少一部分;干、湿两季的小蜂群落多样性指数均很低,虽然在湿季群落内小蜂的丰富度指数较高,但不如干季小蜂分布得均匀;相同季节的小蜂群落均为中等相似,不同季节的2个榕树小蜂群落为中等不相似,有的树对达到极不相似水平;高榕隐头果内传粉小蜂的雄雌性比(♂:♀)较低,为0.14:1,而非传粉小蜂的雄雌性比相对较高,多在1:1左右。以上研究结果表明,西双版纳地区高榕隐头果内的小蜂受不同季节温湿度、人为干扰程度等因素的影响,保护并改善西双版纳地区的生态环境对丰富高榕隐头果小蜂物种多样性有重要意义。

We collected fruits from five individual trees of Ficus altissima in both rainy and dry seasons in Xishuangbanna,Yunnan. We then identified the fig wasps collected from each of the fruits. Of more than 18 000 wasp samples, 14 species were identified, belonging to nine genera of five families. Among them, one species was a pollinator and 13 species were non-pollinators. The wasp community composition and structure differed greatly in rainy and dry seasons. In rainy season, the fruits supported more wasp species than in dry season. There are more wasp species in less disturbed areas than in seriously disturbed ones. The results also indicated that major non pollinators were gall makers, and only a small proportion of them were parasitoids and inquilines. The species diversity index of the wasp community was low all the year round, nevertheless the number of wasp species was higher in the rainy season than in the dry season. The results also showed that the similarity of fig wasp communities between two individual trees was moderate in the same season and very low in different seasons. The sex ratio (male/female) of the pollinator species was low (0.14:1), but the sex ratios of non-pollinators were about 1:1. The results revealed that the seasonal change in weather and habitat fragmentation can affect community structure of the fig wasp in Xishuangbanna, which might have important implications for environmental conservation and restoration in Xishuangbanna.

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