生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (5): 558-565.doi: 10.17520/biods.2020149

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国家濒危物种红色名录的生物多样性保护意义

蒋志刚1, 2, *(), 江建平3, 2, 王跃招3, 2, 张鹗4, 2, 张雁云5, 蔡波3, 2   

  1. 1 中国科学院动物研究所, 北京 100101
    2 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
    3 中国科学院成都生物研究所, 成都 610041
    4 中国科学院水生生物研究所, 武汉 430072
    5 北京师范大学生命科学学院, 北京 100875
  • 收稿日期:2020-04-13 接受日期:2020-05-20 出版日期:2020-05-20
  • 通讯作者: 蒋志刚 E-mail:jiangzg@ioz.ac.cn
  • 基金项目:
    国家重点研发计划(2016YFC0503303);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项子课题(XDA19050204);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项子课题(XDA23080101);国家科技基础性专项(2013FY110300)

Significance of country red lists of endangered species for biodiversity conservation

Zhigang Jiang1, 2, *(), Jianping Jiang3, 2, Yuezhao Wang3, 2, E Zhang4, 2, Yanyun Zhang5, Bo Cai3, 2   

  1. 1 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
    2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
    3 Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041
    4 Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072
    5 College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875
  • Received:2020-04-13 Accepted:2020-05-20 Online:2020-05-20
  • Contact: Zhigang Jiang E-mail:jiangzg@ioz.ac.cn

IUCN濒危物种红色名录与国家濒危物种红色名录都是物种灭绝风险的测度, 前者是全球性评估, 后者则是国别研究。IUCN濒危物种红色名录预警了全球物种的濒危状况, 为全球生物多样性研究提供了大数据; 国别红色名录确定了各国物种受威胁状况, 填补了前者的知识空缺, 两份名录互为补充。目前对国家濒危物种红色名录重视不够。基于如下原因, 应当重视国别濒危物种红色名录的意义: (1)国家是濒危物种保护的行为主体, 物种在一个国家的生存状况是确定其保护级别、开展濒危物种保育的依据; (2)对于仅分布于一个国家的特有物种来说, 其国别濒危物种红色名录等级即是其全球濒危等级; (3)对于跨国境分布的物种来说, 国别濒危物种红色名录等级则确定了该物种在本国的生存状况; (4)结合IUCN濒危物种红色名录, 国别濒危物种红色名录为建立跨国保护地、保护迁徙物种的栖息地与跨国迁徙洄游通道提供依据; (5)国别濒危物种红色名录所特有的“区域灭绝”等级, 反映了一个物种边缘种群在该国的区域灭绝, 恢复“区域灭绝”物种是该物种原分布国重引入保育工作的重点; (6)国别濒危物种红色名录提供了该国物种编目、分类、分布和生存状况的最新信息。然而, 国别濒危物种红色名录的重要性在许多情况下被忽视了。目前正值全球新冠肺炎大流行, 人们正在重新审视人与野生动物的关系。我国将修订有关野生动物保护与防疫法法律以及《国家重点保护野生动物名录》, 防控新的人与野生动物共患疾病再次暴发。对于确定国家重点保护野生动物物种名录来言, 物种受威胁程度是物种列为国家重点保护物种的特征之一。重视国别红色名录有特别的意义。

关键词: 世界自然保护联盟濒危物种红色名录, 国家/区域濒危物种红色名录, 国家重点保护野生动物名录

Both the IUCN Red List of Endangered Species and country red lists of endangered species assess the risk of extinction of species, the former being a global assessment whereas the latter provides regional assessments. The IUCN Red List of Endangered Species alerts the world to the status of endangered species, and also serves as a database of global biodiversity. Country red lists, on the other hand, ascertain the status of species in particular countries, filling knowledge gaps in the former. The two lists are thus complementary to each other. However, insufficient attention has been paid to date to country red lists of endangered species. Country-level red lists should be given greater attention for at least the following reasons: (1) a sovereign country is the main authority for taking conservation action in regard to wildlife species within its boundaries based on the level of endangerment (conservation status) of the species; (2) for endemic species in a country, the country red list status constitutes its global status; (3) for species whose ranges cross national borders, the country’s red list status reflects the survival status of the species in the country; (4) combined with the IUCN global red list, the country red list provides a basis from which to consider the establishment of transnational protected areas, the protection of important habitats for migratory species, and the protection of international migration corridors; (5) the category of “Regional Extinction” is unique to country/regional red lists of endangered species, providing an indication of the danger of extinction of the species at the country level; and (6) country red lists of endangered species can provide updated information on the inventory, classification, distribution and status of species in the country. Yet, the importance of country red lists is often overlooked under many different circumstances. Following onset of the global COVID-19 pandemic, however, people’s outlook in China has been changing in regard to the relationship between humans and wildlife. Consequently, China will be amending national laws on wildlife protection, epidemic prevention, and the List of State Key Protected Wild Animal Species, in order to better prevent and control emerging zoonoses. The status of wildlife species included in the country red list of endangered species should be one of the defining elements for identifying and updating species on the List of State Key Protected Wild Animal Species in China. Thus, it is critical to recognize the significance of the country red list of endangered species at this special moment in time.

Key words: IUCN Red List of Endangered Species, country/regional red lists of endangered species, List of State Key Protected Wild Animal Species

图1

中国生物多样性红色名录哺乳类(A)、鸟类(B)、爬行类(C)和两栖类(D)与IUCN红色名录评估的相应类群的评估种类与濒危等级的差异。插图依次为大熊猫(Ailuropoda melanoleuca)、黄腹角雉(Tragopan caboti)、百色闭壳龟(Cuora mccordi)、大鲵(Andrias davidianus); 摄影者分别为蒋志刚、张雁云、蔡波、江建平。"

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