生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (5): 550-557.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020120

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《野生动物保护法》再修订: 背景、争点与建议

吕忠梅1,*(),陈真亮2   

  1. 1 清华大学法学院, 北京 100084
    2 浙江农林大学文法学院, 杭州 311300
  • 收稿日期:2020-03-27 接受日期:2020-05-18 出版日期:2020-05-20 发布日期:2020-06-10
  • 通讯作者: 吕忠梅

Revision of the Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Protection of Wildlife: Background, issues and suggestions

Zhongmei Lü1,*(),Zhenliang Chen2   

  1. 1 School of Law, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084
    2 School of Law, Zhejiang A & F University, Hangzhou 311300
  • Received:2020-03-27 Accepted:2020-05-18 Online:2020-05-20 Published:2020-06-10
  • Contact: Zhongmei Lü

摘要:

《野生动物保护法》的修订已纳入全国人大2020年年度立法计划。现行《野生动物保护法》虽然经过多次修改, 但仍存在野生动物保护范围较窄、监管体制不顺、执法标准不科学、法律制度不完善等问题, 不能适应新时代“健康中国”、“美丽中国”战略协同规制的新需求。全国人大常委会通过的《关于全面禁止非法野生动物交易、革除滥食野生动物陋习、切实保障人民群众生命健康的决定》, 为修订《野生动物保护法》带来了良好机遇。目前各方面对于修订《野生动物保护法》既有共识, 也有争议, 呈现出不同利益诉求与立法思维的差异性, 以及立法过程中利益选择、利益表达、利益协调的复杂性。为此, 建议《野生动物保护法》的修订在完善立法目的、合理界定保护范围、健全“黑白”名单制度和许可证制度、优化野生动物保护监管体制、完善激励机制和法律责任制度等方面认真加以研究, 为促进环境治理体系和治理能力现代化“立良法”。

关键词: 野生动物保护法, 再修订, 立法目的, 保护范围, 保护名录, 管理体制

Abstract:

An amendment to the Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Protection of Wildlife has been incorporated into the annual legislative plan for 2020. Although the current Law has been revised many times, its existing problems, such as a narrow scope of wildlife protection, outdated regulatory system, uninformed law enforcement, and imperfect legal system, do not meet the new requirements and regulations put forth in the “Healthy China” and “Beautiful China” era. The decision to ban illegal wildlife trade altogether, eliminate the abuse of wild animals, and ensure people’s health and safety that was adopted by the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress provides a good opportunity for revising the Law. We suggest that the revision of the Law should be carefully studied and implemented in the legislative process by reasonably defining the scope of protection, improving the “black and white” directory and licensing system, optimizing wildlife protection supervision and responsibility, and properly handling coordination with other relevant laws. These steps will promote the modernization of the environmental management system and its capacity.

Key words: amendments of Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Protection of Wildlife, re-revision, legislative purpose, protection scope, protected directory, management system