生物多样性 ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (4): 406-413.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017269

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

长江流域林木资源的重要性及种质资源保护

叶俊伟1, 2, 张云飞2, 王晓娟2, 蔡荔2, 陈家宽3, *()   

  1. 1 中国科学院昆明植物研究所中国西南野生生物种质资源库, 昆明 650201
    2 上海科技馆上海自然博物馆自然史研究中心, 上海 200127
    3 复旦大学生物多样性科学研究所, 上海 200438
  • 收稿日期:2017-10-18 接受日期:2018-02-28 出版日期:2018-04-20
  • 通讯作者: 陈家宽 E-mail:jkchen@fudan.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:

    # 共同第一作者

  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(31600301)

The significance of forest resources and the conservation of germplasm resources in the Yangtze River Basin

Junwei Ye1, 2, Yunfei Zhang2, Xiaojuan Wang2, Li Cai2, Jiakuan Chen3, *()   

  1. 1 Germplasm Bank of Wild Species in Southwest China, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201
    2 Natural History Research Center for Shanghai Natural History Museum, Shanghai Science & Technology Museum, Shanghai 200127;
    3 Institute of Biodiversity Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438
  • Received:2017-10-18 Accepted:2018-02-28 Online:2018-04-20
  • Contact: Chen Jiakuan E-mail:jkchen@fudan.edu.cn
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

中国长江流域有着丰富的林木资源, 包含极高水平的物种多样性、特有性和遗传多样性。根据考古证据, 在旧石器和新石器时代长江文明早期的孕育与发展中, 林木在食物、能源、工具、建筑和舟船中的应用起到了关键作用。现在, 长江流域和珠江流域逐渐成为国内木材供给的热点地区。面对木材供给总量不足和大径级木材结构性短缺问题, 长江流域林木资源将是未来国内木材安全的重要保障。这使得林木种质资源的保护更加迫切。针对长江流域林木种质资源保护存在的家底不清和保存体系不完善问题, 我们应尽快完成林木种质资源的全面调查和重要树种的多样性分析; 完善原地、异地和设施保存相结合的保存体系。

关键词: 长江流域, 林木种质资源, 长江文明, 木材安全, 保存体系

The Yangtze River Basin in China has abundant forest resources, including high species diversity, endemism, and genetic diversity. According to archaeological evidence, forest resources played a substantial role during the formation and development of Yangtze River Civilization in the Paleolithic and Neolithic Age. Food, energy, tools, architecture, and boats were all derived from forest resources. At present, the Yangtze River Basin and Pearl River Basin have become the domestic center of wood supply in China. Faced with insufficient timber supply and shortages of large diameter timber, responsible management of the Yangtze River Basin forest resources is crucial to guarantee domestic timber security in the future. Understanding the status of remaining resources and creating an improved preservation system are needed to effectively conserve forest germplasm resources in the Yangtze River Basin. A comprehensive investigation of forest germplasm resources and diversity analyses of important tree species and a preservation system that is composed of in situ, ex situ and vitro preservation is urgently needed.

Key words: Yangtze River Basin, forest germplasm resource, Yangtze River civilization, wood security, preservation system

图1

长江流域的保护地(蓝色区域)、国家级自然保护区(黑点)、国家林木种质资源库(白点)、木材战略生产储备基地(红色区域)和特有种子植物分布中心(黑色方框)。保护地数据来源于WDPA (World Database on Protected Areas, https://www.protectedplanet.net/)。特有种子植物分布中心数据来自López-Pujol等(2011), 方框中的数字表示按特有性高低排序的特有中心。"

图2

不同时期长江文明对林木的利用方式。黑色方框从左至右分别表示林木在能源、工具, 建筑和独木舟中的应用, 白色表示无此应用。新石器早期: 12,000-9,000年前; 新时期中期早段: 9,000-7,000年前; 新石器中期晚段: 7,000-5,000年前; 新石器晚期: 5,000-4,000年前。"

图3

1961-2015年国内原木产量(a)和原木进口量及其在消耗量中占的比例(b)。数据来自联合国粮食及农业组织(FAO)。"

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