生物多样性 ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (4): 396-405.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017245

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

虫媒传粉植物荞麦的生物学特性与研究进展

吴凌云, 黄双全*()   

  1. 华中师范大学生命科学学院进化与生态学研究所, 武汉 430079
  • 收稿日期:2017-09-09 接受日期:2017-12-22 出版日期:2018-04-20
  • 通讯作者: 黄双全 E-mail:hsq@mail.ccnu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:

    # 共同第一作者

  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(31030016, U1402267)

Insect-pollinated cereal buckwheats: Its biological characteristics and research progress

Lingyun Wu, Shuangquan Huang*()   

  1. Institute of Evolution and Ecology, School of Life Sciences, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079
  • Received:2017-09-09 Accepted:2017-12-22 Online:2018-04-20
  • Contact: Huang Shuangquan E-mail:hsq@mail.ccnu.edu.cn
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

荞麦是禾本科之外的谷物类作物, 具有较高的营养和药用价值。栽培荞麦有甜荞(Fagopyrum esculentum)和苦荞(F. tartaricum), 这两种一年生草本分别为自交不亲和的二型花柱、自交亲和的同型花柱植物; 前者结实依赖昆虫传粉。根据国内外调查研究, 前人对蓼科荞麦属(Fagopyrum)记录了30个物种名, 已有形态学和遗传多样性的调查表明该属的物种多样性中心位于我国西南地区, 特别是长江上游的三江并流区域; 甜荞和苦荞的起源地和祖先物种也认为在该区域。本文在论述前人研究的基础上, 指出对荞麦属的分类修订、野生种质资源的分布、种间关系的调查、优良品种的选育亟待研究。孢粉学和考古学的证据显示在我国长江流域, 人们在4,500年前就开始种植荞麦。荞麦可能曾经是山区人民的主粮, 为孕育长江流域文明提供了食物资源。加强对荞麦基础生物学特性的研究, 运用现代基因组学的方法有望澄清栽培荞麦的起源并探究产量不高的原因, 挖掘和利用其经济和药用价值的性状, 为荞麦成为一类优良的粮食作物提供参考依据。

关键词: 荞麦, 作物起源, 二型花柱, 药用价值, 长江流域, 野生种质资源, 系统发生学, 祖先种

Buckwheat is a pseudo-cereal with high nutritional and officinal value, a food crop outside of Poaceae. Cultivated buckwheat includes two species: sweet or common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), a self-incompatible, distylous annual and bitter or tartary buckwheat (F. tartaricum), a self-compatible, homostylous annual herb; the former depends on insect pollination for seed production. Thirty species have been named in the genus Fagopyrum (Polygonaceae) in the world. Investigations of morphology and genetic diversity suggest that Southwest China is the diversity center of Fagopyrum, especially in the area of Three Parallel Rivers, the upper Yangtze River Valley, where ancestral species of the two buckwheat crops were originated. Previous studies of basic biology on the buckwheat crops are briefly summarized here. Future studies of the taxonomical revision on the genus Fagopyrum, collections of wild germplasm resources, exploration of the interspecific relationships and the breeding of cultivars with superior agronomic traits are strongly needed. Palynological and archaeological evidences imply that the buckwheat crop has been cultivated at least 4,500 years in the Yangtze River Valley, and might have ever been a main food for local populations in the mountain areas, providing food resource for emerging of Yangtze River civilization. Deep understanding of the basic biology of buckwheat with modern techniques of genomics could clarify the origin of cultivated buckwheat and factors limiting seed production. The buckwheat could be a superior crop in the mountain areas if the traits with high agronomic and medicinal value can be excavated and exploited.

Key words: Fagopyrum, crop origin, distyly, medicinal value, Yangtze River Valley, wild germplasm resources, phylogeny, ancestral species

图1

栽培甜荞和苦荞的花和果实。(A)、(B)、(C)分别代表二型花柱甜荞的花序、长花柱花和短花柱花; (D)同型花柱的苦荞正在结实。"

图2

世界范围内荞麦种植现状, 显示欧亚大陆普遍栽培, 数据来源于FAO (2014)。"

表1

中国目前已发表的荞麦种类及其性系统、生活型和主要分布区"

种名
Species
性系统
Sexual system
生活型
Life form
主要分布区
Distribution
大粒组 Big-achene (cymosum)
金荞麦 F. dibotrys (D. Don) Hara 二型花柱 Distyly 多年生 Perennial 亚洲、欧洲、美洲等 Asia, Europe, America, etc.
甜荞麦 F. esculentum Moench 二型花柱 Distyly 一年生 Annual 亚洲、欧洲、美洲等 Asia, Europe, America, etc.
大野荞 F. megaspartanium Q. F. Chen 二型花柱 Distyly 多年生 Perennial 中国(云南、西藏、贵州)等 China (Yunnan, Tibet, Guizhou), etc.
毛野荞 F. pilus Q. F. Chen 二型花柱 Distyly 多年生 Perennial 中国(云南、西藏)等 China (Yunnan, Tibet), etc.
汶川野荞麦 F. wenchuanense J. R. Shao 二型花柱 Distyly 一年生 Annual 中国(四川) China (Sichuan)
F. homotropicum Ohnishi 同型花柱 Homostyly 一年生 Annual 中国(云南、四川、西藏)等 China (Yunnan, Sichuan, Tibet), etc.
苦荞麦 F. tataricum (L.) Gaertn. 同型花柱 Homostyly 一年生 Annual 亚洲、欧洲、美洲等 Asia, Europe, America, etc.
左贡野荞 F. zuogongense Q. F. Chen 同型花柱 Homostyly 一年生 Annual 中国(云南、四川、西藏) China (Yunnan, Sichuan)
小粒组 Small-achene (urophyllum)
F. callianthum Ohnishi 二型花柱 Distyly 一年生 Annual 中国(云南、西藏)、不丹等 China (Yunnan, Tibet), Bhutan, etc.
F. capillatum Ohnishi 二型花柱 Distyly 一年生 Annual 中国(云南)、尼泊尔等 China (Yunnan), Nepal, etc.
心叶野荞麦 F. gilesii (Hemsl.) Hedb. 二型花柱 Distyly 一年生 Annual 中国(云南、四川、西藏) China (Yunnan, Sichuan, Tibet)
纤梗野荞麦
F. gracilipedoides Ohsako & Ohnishi
二型花柱 Distyly 一年生 Annual 中国(云南) China (Yunnan)
金沙野荞麦
F. jinshaense Ohsako & Ohnishi
二型花柱 Distyly 一年生 Annual 中国(云南) China (Yunnan)
小野荞麦 F. leptopodum (Diels) Hedb. 二型花柱 Distyly 一年生 Annual 中国(云南、四川等) China (Yunnan, Sichuan, etc.)
线叶野荞麦 F. lineare (Sam.) K. Haraldson 二型花柱 Distyly 一年生 Annual 中国(云南等) China (Yunnan, etc.)
F. macrocarpum Ohsako & Ohnishi 二型花柱 Distyly 一年生 Annual 中国(四川) China (Sichuan)
F. pleioramosum Ohnishi 二型花柱 Distyly 一年生 Annual 中国(云南、四川、西藏)、尼泊尔 China (Yunnan, Sichuan, Tibet), Nepal
羌彩野荞麦 F. qiangcai D. Q. Bai 二型花柱 Distyly 一年生 Annual 中国(四川) China (Sichuan)
长柄野荞麦 F. statice (Leveille) Gross 二型花柱 Distyly 多年生 Perennial 中国(云南、贵州) China (Yunnan, Guizhou)
硬枝野荞麦 F. urophyllum Gross 二型花柱 Distyly 多年生 Perennial 中国(云南、四川、甘肃) China (Yunnan, Sichuan, Gansu)
皱叶野荞麦 F. crispatifolium J. L. Liu 同型花柱 Homostyly 一年生 Annual 中国(四川) China (Sichuan)
细柄野荞麦
F. gracilipes (Hemsl.) Dammer
同型花柱 Homostyly 一年生 Annual 中国(云南、四川、贵州、陕西等) China (Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Shaanxi, etc.)
F. rubrifolium Ohsako & Ohnishi 同型花柱 Homostyly 一年生 Annual 中国(四川) China (Sichuan)
疏穗野荞麦 F. caudatum (Sam.) A. J. Li 不确定 Unknown 一年生 Annual 中国(云南、四川、甘肃) China (Yunnan, Sichuan, Gansu)
密毛野荞麦 F. densivillosum J. L. Liu 不确定 Unknown 一年生 Annual 中国(四川) China (Sichuan)
海螺沟野荞麦 F. hailuogouense J. R.
Shao, M. L. Zhou & Q. Zhang
不确定 Unknown 多年生 Perennial 中国(四川) China (Sichuan)
龙肘山野荞麦
F. longzhoushanense J. R. Shao
不确定 Unknown 一年生 Annual 中国(四川) China (Sichuan)
螺髻山野荞麦 F. luojishanense J. R. Shao 不确定 Unknown 一年生 Annual 中国(四川) China (Sichuan)
花叶野荞麦 F. polychromofolium A. H. Wang J. L. Liu et P. Yang 不确定 Unknown 一年生 Annual 中国(四川) China (Sichuan)
普格野荞麦 F. pugense T. Yu 不确定 Unknown 一年生 Annual 中国(四川) China (Sichuan)
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