生物多样性 ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (1): 36-43.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017124

• 方法 • 上一篇    下一篇

景观生态安全格局的算法改进与应用

陈洁, 周年兴*(), 陶卓民   

  1. 南京师范大学地理科学学院, 南京 210023
  • 收稿日期:2017-04-19 接受日期:2017-12-04 出版日期:2018-01-27
  • 通讯作者: 周年兴 E-mail:zhounianxing@263.net
  • 作者简介:

    # 共同第一作者

  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(41671140, 41271150)

Algorithm improvements and applications for biological conservation security patterns

Jie Chen, Nianxing Zhou*(), Zhuomin Tao   

  1. School of Geography Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023
  • Received:2017-04-19 Accepted:2017-12-04 Online:2018-01-27
  • Contact: Zhou Nianxing E-mail:zhounianxing@263.net
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

景观安全格局是一种有效的生物保护途径, 其构建应以生物运动的生态过程为基础。本文基于最小累积阻力模型, 运用效用公式法对景观安全格局中的缓冲区识别方法进行探索, 运用梯度算法对生态廊道(源间联结和辐射道)的识别方法进行了改进。结果表明, 在缓冲边界外的低阻力区且与源有一定距离但适合目标保护物种生存的生境孤岛可作为源的潜在区, 缓冲区边界内的高阻力区且与源距离较近但不适合目标保护物种生存的区域则可划分为生态修复区, 在生态廊道上与高阻力点交叉部分可识别为生态修复关键点。以武陵源风景名胜区为例, 构建了以猕猴(Macaca mulatta)为目标保护物种的景观安全格局, 建立了以4个离散分布的猕猴栖息地为源及其3个潜在区为补充的核心保护区域, 划定了多条辐射道和源间联结以改善栖息地之间的连通性, 并识别出了多个生态修复关键点。本文对景观安全格局中缓冲区和生态廊道的识别方法进行了改进, 在武陵源风景名胜区猕猴保护中的运用也具有生物保护上的实践价值。

关键词: 景观安全格局, 算法, 武陵源风景名胜区, 猕猴

Using biological movement as a basis, landscape security patterns are an effective approach to biological conservation. This study probes the recognition technique to buffer zones with the aid of utility formulas, and improves the method of recognition of ecological corridors with the help of gradient descent algorithms. These habit islets, which are located within low-resistance areas outside the buffer zone and of a certain distance from suitable sources for the subsistence of targeted protected species, can be considered source candidates. Regions, which are situated within high-resistance areas inside the buffer zone and close to unsuitable sources for maintaining targeted protected species, can be categorized in ecological restoration areas. The intersection between ecological corridors and high-resistance areas should be identified as a key point for ecological restoration. Taking the Wulingyuan Scenic and Historic Interest Area (WSA) as an empirical case, the study formulates the landscape security pattern of Macaca mulatta, in which the core area of the reserve is comprised of four discrete source Macaca mulatta habitats and is supplemented by three source candidates. A few ecological corridors and connections between sources that aimed to improve connectivity of the inter-population were delimited, and strategic points of ecological restoration are discerned. This study not only identifies buffer zones and ecological corridors in landscape security patterns but also attaches great practical significance to biological conservation exemplified by the Macaca mulatta population in WSA.

Key words: landscape security pattern, algorithm, Wulingyuan Scenic and Historic Interest Area, Macaca mulatta

图1

累积阻力与累计面积的函数关系"

图2

武陵源风景名胜区示意图"

表1

环境阻力因子及权重"

阻力因子 Resistance factor 权重 Weight
植被覆盖类型 Vegetation cover type 0.4
高程 Elevation 0.2
距水源地的距离 Distance from water 0.1
距河流的距离 Distance from rivers 0.2
距公路的距离 Distance from roads 0.06
距游步道的距离 Distance from walking trails 0.04

图3

单一源的景观阻力面(石家檐)"

图4

由边界方程划分的缓冲区"

图5

基于阻力分级的缓冲区"

表2

源的潜在区选取因子及权重"

因子
Factors
条件
Selecting condition
权重
Weight
猕猴生境适宜度指数[0, 1]
Habitat suitability index for Macaca mulatta [0, 1]
≥ 0.7 0.7
景观异质性
Landscape heterogeneity
≥ 2 0.1
斑块面积 Patch area ≥ 0.4 km2 0.1
斑块形状指数[0, 1]
Patch shape index [0, 1]
≥ 0.6 0.1

图6

猕猴保护的景观安全格局"

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