生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (8): 823-829.doi: 10.17520/biods.2016289

• 研究报告: 植物多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国红河地区董棕林乔木树种的物种组成和地理亲缘关系

陈文红1, 4, 施济普2, 文军3, 郭世伟1, 常艳芬2, 税玉民1, 4, *()   

  1. 1 (中国科学院昆明植物研究所东亚植物多样性与生物地理学重点实验室, 昆明 650201)
    2 (中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园, 云南勐腊 666303)
    3 (United States National Herbarium, Department of Botany, Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC, USA)
    4 (云南省喀斯特地区生物多样性保护研究会, 昆明 650201)
  • 收稿日期:2016-10-05 接受日期:2017-05-10 出版日期:2017-08-20
  • 通讯作者: 税玉民 E-mail:ymshui@mail.kib.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:具体评估过程包括信息汇总(各个渠道的标本信息、野外调查信息及文献资料)、逐条比对IUCN红色名录等级与标准、确定等级、填写评估说明。在具体评估过程中, 针对不同类群设计信息调查表, 通过电话和邮件向多位同行征询物种的居群信息。
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(31370228)、美国国家地理协会项目(NGS8288-07)和中国科学院昆明植物研究所东亚植物多样性与生物地理学院重点实验室开放项目(KLB201205)

Composition and geographical affinity of the tree species Caryota obtusa forests in the Honghe region, SW China

Wenhong Chen1, 4, Jipu Shi2, Jun Wen3, Shiwei Guo1, Yanfen Chang2, Yumin Shui1, 4, *()   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory for Plant Diversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201, China
    2 Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Mengla, Yunnan 666303, China
    3 United States National Herbarium, Department of Botany, Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC, USA
    4 Karst Conservation Initiative of Yunnan, Kunming 650201, China
  • Received:2016-10-05 Accepted:2017-05-10 Online:2017-08-20
  • Contact: Shui Yumin E-mail:ymshui@mail.kib.ac.cn

在中国和中南半岛的喀斯特地区, 董棕(Caryota obtusa)林是一类外貌醒目、物种多样和生境独特的植物群落。由于其具有作为食物和用于园艺的潜在价值, 董棕在自然生境中越来越稀少。为了弄清董棕林的群落特征和物种组成, 我们在云南红河地区的一个喀斯特峡谷选取6个群落样方研究了董棕群落的物种多样性。在每个20 m × 20 m样方中, 调查了胸径(DBH) ≥ 4 cm的乔木树种的胸径等生物学特征。通过相对多度、相对频度和相对显著度计算出研究区董棕林群落中每个乔木树种的重要值, 确定了该群落的优势组成。一方面, 我们分别通过分布区类型和自然地理单元两种地理分布样式来分析乔木树种的地理成分组成特点, 从而确定董棕林的地理联系; 另一方面, 我们选择了群落中重要值排名前5位的乔木树种, 通过地理分布图的绘制, 分析比较了5个优势树种的地理分布特点及其关系, 确定了所选取的研究群落在整个董棕分布区的地位。结果表明, 云南红河地区董棕林由67种乔木树种组成, 群落名称可定为董棕+双果桑群落(Caryota obtusa + Streblus macrophyllus community), 群落中乔木物种的区系成分以中南半岛分布最多, 且是在热带东南亚喀斯特地貌大背景下发育形成的。研究暗示我国的董棕群落已处于该类热带喀斯特植被的最北缘, 在中南半岛这个全球生物多样性热点地区值得优先加以保护。

关键词: 热带北缘, 喀斯特峡谷, 棕榈科植物, 残存生境, 热带植被

Caryota obtusa forests are characterized as showy vegetation with rich species diversity and a unique habitat in the Honghe region of China. Due to its food and horticulture value, mature Caryota obtusa individuals have become more rare in the field. Here, we sampled six plots in a deep karst valley of the Honghe region of Yunnan, China. In each 20 m × 20 m plot, our examination focused on species composition of trees via the measure of any trees with DBH ≥ 4 cm. Importance values were produced from datasets of their relative abundance (RA), relative frequency (RF), and relative prominence (RP). On one hand, we analyzed the composition and geographical affinity of the tree species in Caryota obtusa forests based on the two patterns of geographic distributions (areal-type and natural geographic unit), respectively. On the other hand, we selected the top 5 dominant tree species based on importance value and illustrated their distributions to confirm the position of sampled vegetation in the background of the entire distribution of the target species. The above survey and analysis revealed that there were 67 tree species contained in the sampled vegetation, which was a Caryota obtusa + Streblus macrophyllus community and the geographic affinity of the vegetation belonged to the geographic unit of IndoChina Peninsula with some strong karst background. Our study implies that the vegetation sampled here reached its northernmost distribution and deserves to be prioritized in conservation as it is a biodiversity hotspot in IndoChina Peninsula.

Key words: northernmost tropic, karst valley, palm, relic habitat, tropic vegetation

图1

中国红河地区董棕林。A: 群落外貌; B: 董棕的树冠; C: 董棕次生纯林。a: 董棕; b: 桄榔; c: 一担柴; d: 网脉核果木; e: 绒毛番龙眼; f: 龙荔。(税玉民摄)"

表1

云南红河地区6个董棕林样方的生境特点及物种数量组成"

编号
No.
海拔
Altitude (m)
坡向
Aspect
坡度
Slope Degree
高度
Height (m)
总盖度
Coverage (%)
乔木
Tree
灌木
Shrub
草本
Herb
藤本
Vine
附生植物
Epiphyte
G01 560 NW42° 33° 26 80 16 44 18 14 9
G02 550 NW30° 25° 27 70 19 47 23 18 9
G03 560 NE80° 36° 35 75 19 39 39 16 7
G04 570 NE38° 41° 24 75 21 28 11 11 1
G10 860 NE2° 39° 22 66 22 60 37 34 8
G11 510 NW23° 14° 32 86 34 34 40 19 8

表2

中国红河地区董棕林群落主要乔木树种组成及其重要值"

科 Family 物种 Species 相对多度
Relative
abundance
相对显著度
Relative
frequency
相对频度
Relative
prominence
重要值
Importance
values
桑科 Moraceae 双果桑 Streblus macrophyllus 0.2394 0.1087 0.0458 13.13
棕榈科 Palmae 董棕 Caryota obtusa 0.0664 0.1559 0.0458 8.94
棕榈科 Palmae 桄榔 Arenga westerhoutii 0.0704 0.0931 0.0229 6.22
椴树科 Tiliaceae 一担柴 Colona floribunda 0.0423 0.0382 0.0458 4.21
大戟科 Euphorbiaceae 网脉核果木 Drypetes perreticulata 0.0262 0.0555 0.0305 3.74
无患子科 Sapindaceae 干果木 Xerospermum bonii 0.0221 0.0659 0.0229 3.7
苏木科 Caesalpiniaceae 中国无忧花 Saraca dives 0.0322 0.0502 0.0229 3.51
荨麻科 Urtiaceae 圆基火麻树 Dendrocnide basirotunda 0.0362 0.0296 0.0305 3.21
大戟科 Euphorbiaceae 棒柄花 Cleidion brevipetiolatum 0.0443 0.0150 0.0305 2.99
番荔枝科 Annonaceae 金平藤春 Alphonsea boniana 0.0221 0.0159 0.0382 2.54
柿树科 Ebenaceae 六花柿 Diospyros hexamera 0.0141 0.0233 0.0305 2.26
大戟科 Euphorbiaceae 粗糠柴 Mallotus philippensis 0.0443 0.0141 0.0076 2.2
梧桐科 Sterculiaceae 苹婆 Sterculia monosperma 0.0221 0.0254 0.0153 2.09
番荔枝科 Annonaceae 海南澄广花 Orophea hainanensis 0.0342 0.0108 0.0153 2.01
夹竹桃科 Apocynaceae 胭木 Wrightia arborea 0.0161 0.0149 0.0229 1.8
无患子科 Sapindaceae 绒毛番龙眼 Pometia tomentosa 0.0080 0.0268 0.0153 1.67
大戟科 Euporbiaceae 大麻叶巴豆 Croton damayeshu 0.0121 0.0140 0.0153 1.38
肉豆蔻科 Myristicaceae 大叶风吹楠 Horsfieldia kingii 0.0141 0.0114 0.0153 1.36
冬青科 Aquifoliaceae 阔叶冬青 lex latifrons 0.0101 0.0201 0.0076 1.26
紫金牛科 Myrsinaceae 星毛紫金牛 Ardisia nigropilosa 0.0161 0.0057 0.0153 1.23
无患子科 Sapindaceae 龙荔 Dimocarpus confinis 0.0080 0.0028 0.0229 1.13
蝶形花科 Papilionaceae 红豆属一种 Ormosia sp. 0.0121 0.0053 0.0153 1.09
木兰科 Magoniaceae 单性木兰 Kmeria septentrionalis 0.0080 0.0161 0.0076 1.06
紫葳科 Bignoniaceae 火烧花 Mayodendron igneum 0.0060 0.0026 0.0229 1.05
桑科 Moraceae 苹果榕 Ficus oligodon 0.0080 0.0076 0.0153 1.03
楝科 Meliaceae 溪桫 Chisocheton cumingianus 0.0060 0.0017 0.0229 1.02

图2

中国红河地区董棕林乔木层树种的种分布区类型组成(%)"

图3

中国西南喀斯特地区董棕林乔木层树种的种地理联系分析。(A)与中国分布联系的大尺度地理成分; (B)与滇东南分布联系的小尺度地理成分。"

图4

中国喀斯特地区董棕林主要建群树种的地理分范围(基于表2乔木层的重要值排名)"

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