生物多样性 ›› 2002, Vol. 10 ›› Issue (4): 416-424.doi: 10.17520/biods.2002057

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国银鱼的多样性及其保护对策

王忠锁, 傅萃长, 雷光春   

  1. 1 (北京大学生命科学学院,  北京 100871)
    2 (复旦大学生命科学学院,  上海 200433)
  • 收稿日期:2002-03-28 修回日期:2002-07-25 出版日期:2002-11-20
  • 通讯作者: 雷光春

Biodiversity of Chinese Icefishes (Salangidae) and their conserving strategies

WANG ZhongSuo, FU CuiZhang, LEI GuangChun   

  1. 1 College of Lif e Sciences , Peking University , Beijing 100871
    2 College of Life Sciences , Fudan University , Shanghai 200433
  • Received:2002-03-28 Revised:2002-07-25 Online:2002-11-20
  • Contact: LEI GuangChun

中国是世界银鱼(银鱼科Salangidae的简称)的起源地和主要分布区,在中国东部近海和各大水系的河口共分布有世界17种银鱼中的15种,其中特有种6种。银鱼营养价值和经济价值均很高,是重要的经济鱼类。银鱼生活周期短、世代离散、生殖力和定居能力强。作为典型的r对策者,银鱼对环境变化敏感且反应迅速,种群消长快,在漫长的进化过程中形成了其种间食性、生长和繁殖等生物学和生态学特征的丰富的多样性。然而我国的银鱼天然资源却因围湖造田、过度捕捞、环境污染和生境破碎化等多种因素的影响而持续衰退,各种银鱼的天然资源都不同程度地下降,物种分布范围显著缩小,个别物种渐危。本文在综述我国银鱼生物学、生态学和生物多样性研究的基础上,分析了我国银鱼研究及其物种多样性和种质资源保护工作中所面临的问题;呼吁审视银鱼移植增殖的生态效应,加强银鱼的基本生态学研究和生物多样性保护,并提出我国银鱼资源保护和可持续利用的对策。

Icefishes (Salangidae) originated in the Chinese Yellow Sea, and are distributed in eastern Asia. Fifteen out of the 17 global icefish species live in China's coastal area, outflow rivers and estuaries, among which six are endemic to China. The endemic icefishes include Neosalanx oligodontis, N. taihuensis, N. pseudotaihuensis, N. tangkahkeii, Hemisalanx brachyrostralis, and Salanx cuvieri. Among all the rivers that flow into the South China Sea, East Sea and Yellow Sea, the Yangtze River has been the most important one for this family, where 10 species live, including five species of freshwater icefishes. Icefishes have been appreciated as a highly nutritious food, and therefore have been a major economic resource in the Yangtze River basin. Icefishes have a wide range of food choices  among species, but are very sensitive to their environments,and they develop quickly, with short life cycles, with discrete generations, high fecundity, and wide population fluctuations, and therefore, they are typical r-strategy species. However, due to habitat destruction (wetland reclamation), and fragmentation (dyking), over fishing, and environmental pollution, icefish biodiversity have been declining, and some species have even become vulnerable to extinction. Meanwhile, in the past decade, a few species have been widely introduced into large lakes and reservoirs in China, and have caused problems in the recipient freshwater ecosystem. Based on reviewing the current understanding of their biology, ecology and biodiversity, we present strategies for icefish conservation, and call for an evaluation of the current threats to their biodiversity, as well as of the ecological consequences of icefish introduction, and for strengthening of basic studies on ecology and biodiversity conservation of icefish.

No related articles found!
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed