生物多样性 ›› 2002, Vol. 10 ›› Issue (1): 49-60.doi: 10.17520/biods.2002008

所属专题: 生物多样性与生态系统功能

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生物多样性与生态系统功能:进展与争论

张全国, 张大勇   

  1. (生物多样性与生态工程教育部重点实验室,北京师范大学生态学研究所,  北京 100875)
  • 收稿日期:2001-08-10 修回日期:2001-11-27 出版日期:2002-02-20
  • 通讯作者: 张大勇

Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning: recent advances and controversies

ZHANG Quan-Guo, ZHANG Da-Yong   

  1. Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering & Institute of Ecology , Beijing Normal University , Beijing 100875
  • Received:2001-08-10 Revised:2001-11-27 Online:2002-02-20
  • Contact: ZHANG DaYong

生物多样性与生态系统功能的关系已成为当前人类社会面临的一个重大科学问题。生物多样性的空前丧失促使人们开展了大量研究工作来描述物种多样性-生态系统功能关系,并试图揭示多样性与系统功能关系的内在机制。本文将多样性对生态系统功能作用机制的有关假说分为统计学与生物学两大类:前者是从统计学角度来解释观察到的多样性-系统功能模式,包括抽样效应、统计均衡效应等;而后者是基于多样性的生物学效应给出的,包括生态位互补、种间正相互作用、保险效应等。本文较为详细地介绍了该领域内有代表性的实验工作,包括“生态箱”实验、Cedar Creek草地多样性实验、微宇宙实验、欧洲草地实验,以及在这些实验结果解释上的激烈争论。

关键词: 刷尾负鼠, 入侵有袋类, 生物防治, 新西兰

The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning has emerged as a major scientific issue today. Concerns over the unprecedented loss of biodiversity have motivated ecologists to conduct considerable research, describing the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem function, and detecting the mechanisms by which diversity impacts ecosystem functioning. Statistical and biological hypotheses have been proposed to explain the observed relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. The former, including hypotheses related to sampling and statistical averaging effects, are inclined to view empirical results from a purely statistical perspective, while the latter are built on biological effects of biodiversity, including niche complementarity, positive interactions between species, and insurance effects. This paper presents a review of several representative experimental studies, including. Ecotron, Cedar Creek, microbial microcosm and BIODEPTH, and the associated debates about the interpretation of experimental observations.

Key words: brushtail possum, Trichosurus vulpecula, invasive marsupial, control, biocontrol, New Zealand

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