生物多样性 ›› 2001, Vol. 09 ›› Issue (4): 472-481.doi: 10.17520/biods.2001068

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

三峡工程中的生物多样性保护

黄真理   

  1. 1 (中科院水生生物研究所,  武汉 430072)
    2 (国务院三峡工程建设委员会办公室,  北京 100038)
  • 收稿日期:2000-12-26 修回日期:2001-08-07 出版日期:2001-11-20
  • 通讯作者: 黄真理

Biodiversity conservation for the Three Gorges Project

HUANG Zhen-Li   

  1. 1 Institute of Hydrobiology , Chinese Academy of Sciences , Wuhan  430072
    2 Executive Of fice of the State Council Three Gorges Project Construction Committee , Beijing 100038
  • Received:2000-12-26 Revised:2001-08-07 Online:2001-11-20
  • Contact: HUANG ZhenLi

三峡工程导致长江水文情势改变、水库淹没和移民搬迁,成为影响生物多样性的直接的、主要的因素。本文根据最新调查和研究成果,评述了三峡工程对生物多样性的影响,介绍了正在采取的措施及其效果。水库淹没和移民搬迁是影响陆生生物的主要因素。三峡库区有144个植物群系,6388种高等植物,3418种昆虫,500种陆生脊椎动物。其中36个植物群系受到部分或全部淹没影响,4种地方特有植物的野生种群遭到淹没(1种全淹,3种部分淹没)。水文情势改变是影响水生生物的主要因素。长江水系共有鱼类350种,浮游动植物、底栖动物、水生植物等1085种。其中,三峡工程对部分珍稀大型水生动物、40余种特有鱼类和“四大家鱼”的影响值得重视。我们将通过建立长期的生物监测站、设立保护区和保护点、采用人工繁殖放流等措施保护生物多样性,减少三峡工程对生物多样性的不利影响,避免因三峡工程而造成物种丧失。

The Three Gorges Project ( TGP) ,now under const ruction , will cause hydrological variation of Yangtze River. Reservoir inundation and large amounts of resettlement of people are direct and key factors affecting biodiversity conservation of the affected area. Based on the latest field investigations and research findings , this paper reviews the related issues on biodiversity conservation of TGP. For the Three Gorges reservoir area , there are 144 vegetation types , 6388 high plant species , 3418 insect species , and 500 terrest rial vertebrate species. The reservoir inundation and resettlement are major factors affecting terrest rial life , in which 36 vegetation types will be affected and four endemic plant species will be submerged (one species range fully submerged and three species partly) . There are 350 fish species and 1085 aquatic species including plankton , benthic and aquatic plants in Yangtze River which are mainly affected by the hydrological variation. Some endemic or endangered aquatic lives ,such as Chinese River Dolphin , Chinese Finless Porpoise , Chinese sturgeon , Chinese Paddlefish , Dabry Sturgeon , Chinese Sucker and four fish species (Black Carp , Grass Carp , Silver Carp and Bighead) , are worth paying more attention to. The populations of these species have already sharply de creased due to non-Three Gorges Project factors. With the const ruction of TGP , many countermeasures will be taken , such as setting up a long-term ecological and environmental monitoring network , setting up nature reserves for conservation priorities , and implementing artificial breeding and stocking for the endangered fishes , to reduce negative impacts on biodiversity and thereby to assure no loss of species from the TGP.

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