生物多样性 ›› 2007, Vol. 15 ›› Issue (6): 626-632.doi: 10.1360/biodiv.070201

所属专题: 植物与传粉者相互作用

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

榕-蜂互惠关系中榕树对未传粉榕小蜂的惩罚效应

管俊明1, 2, 彭艳琼1, 杨大荣1*   

  1. 1 (中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园, 昆明 650223)
    2 (中国科学院研究生院, 北京 100049)
  • 出版日期:2007-11-20

Host sanctions in fig–fig wasp mutualism

Junming Guan1, 2, Yanqiong Peng1, Darong Yang1*   

  1. 1 Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223
    2 Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Online:2007-11-20

为验证榕树与其传粉榕小蜂这一严格的、一对一的互利共生系统中是否存在寄主惩罚效应, 作者于2007年在云南省西双版纳热带植物园中对雌雄同株的垂叶榕 (Ficus benjamina)进行了单果放蜂实验。将为垂叶榕传粉的榕小蜂 (Eupristina koningsbergeri)处理成带粉和不带粉的两组, 每组又分一只和两只两个水平, 分别放进单个隐头花序果中。结果发现: 没有传粉榕小蜂进入的隐头花序果会很快终止发育并脱落; 而在放了传粉榕小蜂的隐头花序果里, 除少数几个放一只不带粉的外, 隐头花序果基本都能完成其生活史。但是, 带粉雌蜂繁殖的后代小蜂数量显著高于没有带粉的雌蜂, 特别是在放两只蜂的处理中。研究结果说明传粉榕小蜂的主动传粉对其繁殖不是必需的, 但是主动传粉能增加其繁殖成功的几率。这些结果预示着寄主惩罚效应在榕-蜂互惠系统中发挥着作用。

Mutualism is a relationship between individuals of different species that benefits all the partners. However, this interaction may also be described as mutual exploitation. The “host sanctions effect” predicts that the hosts punish partners that cheat by receiving benefits without paying for them. Fig trees (Ficus) and their fig-pollinating wasps (Agaonidae) constitute a mutualistic system with a mainly one-to-one relationship. In order to test if there exists the “host sanctions effect”, we carried out a study at Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Yunnan Province on the monoecious fig tree Ficus benjamina, which is actively pollinated by Eupristina koningsbergeri. We produced two groups of pollinating wasps, either carrying pollen or not, and introduced one or two foundress wasps from each group into single figs. Figs entered by no wasps aborted rapidly, but almost all figs entered by wasps completed their development normally, except a few entered by a single pollen-free wasp. However, pollen-loaded foundresses produced significantly larger broods than foundresses without pollen. This effect was particularly marked in figs containing two foundresses. Our results show that active pollination is not essential for the reproduction of the pollinator, but does improve its reproductive success. This suggests that a sanctions effect is operating.

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