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云南横断山区蚤类物种丰富度与区系的垂直分布格局

龚正达1*, 吴厚永2, 段兴德1, 冯锡光1, 张云智1, 刘泉2   

  1. 1(云南省地方病防治所, 大理 671000)
    2(军事医学科学院微生物流行病学研究所, 北京 100071)
  • 收稿日期:2004-11-18 修回日期:2005-05-23 出版日期:2005-07-20
  • 通讯作者: 龚正达

Species richness and vertical distribution pattern of flea fauna in Heng-duan Mountains of western Yunnan, China

Zhengda Gong 1*, Houyong Wu2, Xingde Duan 1, Xiguang Feng 1, Yunzhi Zhang 1, Quan Liu 2   

  1. 1Yunnan Institute of Endemic Diseases Control and Prevention, Dali 671000, China
    2 Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Beijing 100071, China
  • Received:2004-11-18 Revised:2005-05-23 Online:2005-07-20
  • Contact: Zhengda Gong

为探讨横断山区蚤类物种丰富度与区系垂直分布格局的基本规律以及影响它们分布的主要生态因子, 本文以云南西部横断山区18个山峰为主体, 对海拔高度在1000-5000 m之间已知分布的9科43属142种(亚种)蚤类的垂直分布资料进行综合整理和统计分析。结果显示: (1)蚤类的属丰富度、物种丰富度、特有种丰富度和特有度以及不同区系成分物种丰富度的垂直分布都呈现随海拔先增高后降低的单峰分布格局, 最大峰值出现在中山海拔2500-3800 m之间; (2)东洋和古北两区系成分物种构成比的垂直分布格局截然不同, 前者随着海拔梯度的升高基本递减, 后者则随着海拔的升高递增, 垂直分布格局反映了它们沿纬度梯度分布的一般规律; (3)聚类分析将横断山9个不同海拔带的蚤类归为6个生态类型, 反映出海拔高度、气候环境和森林植被等重要因素对蚤类分布的影响以及蚤类群落的组成、分布沿海拔梯度变化的一般规律, 表达了蚤类分布与环境条件的统一性; (4)β多样性沿海拔梯度呈现为双峰形分布格局, 两高峰值都反映出蚤类的组成和分布在不同气候环境和植被带之间的过渡与转变, 说明β多样性垂直分布格局与海拔梯度上的气候和生境的变化程度有关。研究认为, 中山地段物种丰富度高峰的形成主要是由于两大动、植物区系过渡区的边缘效应和山地水湿条件的影响。影响该区域蚤类垂直分布格局的综合因素有山体海拔高度、动植物区系过渡区的边缘效应、山地雨量分配特征、气候环境条件以及人们的生产活动等。

The field investigation data from 18 hilly areas in Hengduan Mountains of western Yunnan, China were accumulated and statistically analyzed in order to understand the basic distribution of the species richness and fauna pattern of fleas along altitudinal gradients, and ecological factors affecting their distribution. The altitude of areas investigated ranged from 1000 to 5000 m, and 142 species, 43 genera and 9 families of fleas were recorded. The analysis revealed that: (1) the genus richness, species richness, endemic species richness, ratios of endemic species and the species richness of different faunal realms gradually increased and then decreased with increase of elevation, such that a single-peak curve appears in vertical distribution. The peak appeared in the areas from 2500 m to 3800 m above sea level; (2) the vertical distribution pattern of Oriental fauna was quite different from that of Palaearctic fauna. The species components of Oriental fauna gradually decreased along the altitudinal gradient while those of Palaearctic fauna showed an increasing tendency, which reflected a pattern similar to that of the vertical distribution along the latitudinal gradient; (3)flea species in 9 vertical zones of Hengduan Mountains were classified into 6 ecological types by cluster analysis, which reflected the influence of some ecological factors (such as altitude, climate, and vegetation) on flea species distribution and community composition. It also demonstrated that flea distribution is in ac-cordance with the altitudinal gradient and environment. (4) A two-peak curve appeared in the vertical distri-bution of β diversity along an altitudinal gradient, which revealed a transitional fluctuation of flea species composition and distribution among the differential elevation, climate and vegetation zones. Both the bound-ary effect of transitional fauna or flora and the humidity may be the main reasons for the peak of species richness, genus richness and family richness in the middle elevation zones (2500-3800 m). We conclude that the pattern of flea distribution along an altitudinal gradient may be affected by a variety of factors, including altitude, the boundary effect of transitional fauna or flora, rainfall, climate, habitat, human ac-tivities, etc.

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