生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (10): 1336-1347.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021130

• 研究报告:动物多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

南水北调中线工程对海河流域鱼类入侵风险分析

李雪健1,2, 唐文乔1,*(), 赵亚辉2,*()   

  1. 1.上海海洋大学海洋动物系统分类与进化上海高校重点实验室, 上海 201306
    2.中国科学院动物研究所动物进化与系统学重点实验室, 北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2021-04-09 接受日期:2021-07-14 出版日期:2021-10-20 发布日期:2021-10-20
  • 通讯作者: 唐文乔,赵亚辉
  • 作者简介:zhaoyh@ioz.ac.cn
    * E-mail: wqtang@shou.edu.cn;
  • 基金资助:
    生态环境部生物多样性调查评估项目(2019HJ2096001006);中国生物多样性监测与研究网络-内陆水体鱼类多样性监测专项网和国家科技基础资源调查专项(2019FY101800)

Risk analysis of fish invasion in Haihe River Basin caused by the central route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project

Xuejian Li1,2, Wenqiao Tang1,*(), Yahui Zhao2,*()   

  1. 1 Shanghai Universities Key Laboratory of Marine Animal Taxonomy and Evolution, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306
    2 Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
  • Received:2021-04-09 Accepted:2021-07-14 Online:2021-10-20 Published:2021-10-20
  • Contact: Wenqiao Tang,Yahui Zhao

摘要:

海河流域是南水北调中线工程的受水区之一, 为评估中线工程引发海河流域鱼类入侵的风险, 本研究统计了南水北调引水区和受水区海河流域鱼类物种多样性差异, 采用水生生物入侵能力筛查系统(aquatic species invasiveness screening kit, AS-ISK)和外来鱼类入侵风险评估体系筛选引水区有入侵风险的鱼类物种, 并用MaxEnt模型预测有入侵风险的鱼类物种在海河流域的潜在适生区。结果表明, 丁鱥(Tinca tinca)、陈氏新银鱼(Neosalanx tangkahkeii)和大口鲇(Silurus meridionalis)是具有高入侵风险的鱼类, 另有3种鱼类具有中入侵风险, 均需重点监控; 而具入侵风险鱼类的适生区预测结果表明, 海河流域南部的徒骇马颊河水系、海河水系的漳卫南运河以及环渤海地区的河流是极易发生鱼类入侵的水域。因此在海河流域高入侵风险水域应开展持续性的水生生物监测, 针对具有高入侵风险的鱼类应进行早期筛查, 此外在水资源利用和分配上应加强管理, 从源头上杜绝鱼类入侵的发生, 还应尽快开展针对东线工程的鱼类资源调查和入侵风险评估工作。

关键词: 海河流域, 引水区, 南水北调中线工程, 鱼类入侵, AS-ISK

Abstract

Aims: The Haihe River Basin is one of the seven main river basins in China. It also receives water from the central route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project. Due to the combined effect of human activity and climate change, river degradation became the primary problem of Haihe River Basin over several decades. The South-to-North Water Diversion Project can improve the environment in this river basin, but it can also bring the risk of fish invasion. Therefore, this research was conducted to assess the risk of fish invasion in Haihe River Basin caused by this project.
Methods: Based on a field investigation and an analysis of the relevant research, differences in the fish species between the water diversion area and the water receiving area (Haihe River Basin) of South-to-North Water Diversion Project were evaluated. A risk assessment system for invasion of alien fishes and an aquatic species invasiveness screening kit V2.3 were used to assess the invasion risk of fish species which are not naturally distributed in Haihe River Basin. MaxEnt model was used to predict the potential distribution of fish species with invasion risk in Haihe River Basin.
Results: The scoring results of the risk assessment system and the aquatic species invasiveness screening kit showed that Tinca tinca, Neosalanx tangkahkeii and Silurus meridionalis have a high invasion risk, and that Odontobutis sinensis, Pelteobagrus nitidus and Siniperca knerii have a medium invasion risk. According to the prediction of potential geographic distribution areas conducted by MaxEnt, the Tuhaimajiahe River system, Zhangwei south Canal, and coastal rivers around the Bohai Sea are prone to fish invasion.
Conclusions: Aquatic organisms in the water-receiving area of Haihe River Basin should be continuously monitored, especially in areas most prone to fish invasion, for fish species with high invasion risk. A specific early screening system should be established. In addition, the fish resource investigation and invasion risk assessment for the Eastern Route Project should be carried out as soon as possible.

Key words: Haihe River Basin, water diversion area, central route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project, fish invasion, AS-ISK