生物多样性 ›› 1996, Vol. 04 ›› Issue (1): 32-40.DOI: 10.17520/biods.1996007

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

自然保护区设计的主要原理和方法

李义明,李典谟   

  1. (中国科学院动物研究所,  北京 100080)
  • 收稿日期:1996-06-24 修回日期:1995-02-25 出版日期:1996-02-20 发布日期:1996-02-20

Main principles and approaches of nature reserve design

Li Yiming, Li Dianmo   

  1. Institute of Zoology , The Chinese Academy of Sciences ,Beijing  100080
  • Received:1996-06-24 Revised:1995-02-25 Online:1996-02-20 Published:1996-02-20

摘要: 本文回顾了自然保护区设计的主要原理和方法。建立自然保护区的目的是防止物种绝灭和生物多样性消失。岛屿生物地理学的“平衡理论”的设计原则未涉及到物种绝灭的中心问题——种群生存力,所以该理论对保护实践贡献较小。种群生存力分析和最小可存活种群的理论及模型用于物种绝灭问题的研究,同时关键种的生存力用于确定生态系统的生存力,因而该理论和模型成为自然保护区设计的理论基础。保护评估方法已应用于自然保护区的选择和检验中。走廊辩论取代了SLOSS辩论,成为自然保护区设计争论的热点。

AbstractMain principles and approaches of nature reserve design are reviewed in present paper.The goal of building nature reserves is to prevent species extinction and biodiversity loss.The equilibrium theory of island biogeography has little contribution to conservation practice because empirical evidence does not support it and the design based this theory is not related to the central problem of species extinction population viability.The theory and models of population viability analysis and minimum viable population are used to study the problem of species extinction and the viability of ecosystems can be determined by using the viability of keystone species, thus they are theoretical foundation of the nature reserve design.The approaches of conservation evaluation have been used in nature reserve selection and examination. The corridor debate which has replaced the SLOSS debate becomes a “hot spot” in the nature reserve design.