Biodiversity Science ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (3): 287-295.doi: 10.17520/biods.2015312

• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Effects of fertilization regimes on weed seed banks in a rice-wheat crop system

Guojun Sun1, *(), Yong Li3, *, Fenhua Li1, Haiyan Zhang1, Min Han1, Fang Yuan1, Rongsong Zhu3, Zhong Ji4, Yicheng Sun1, Feng Zhu5, Dongping Xu1, 2, Li Huang1, 2   

  1. 1 Plant Protection and Quarantine Station in Jintan District of Changzhou, Jintan, Jiangsu 213200
    2 School of Horticulture and Plant Protection, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu 225009
    3 Soil and Fertilizer Technology Guidance Station in Jintan District of Changzhou, Jintan, Jiangsu 213200
    4 Seed Management Station in Jintan District of Changzhou, Jintan, Jiangsu 213200
    5 Jiangsu Plant Protection and Quarantine Station, Nanjing 210036
  • Received:2015-11-12 Accepted:2016-02-02 Online:2016-04-05
  • Sun Guojun,Li Yong

To reveal the effects of different fertilization treatments on weed seed banks in a rice-wheat crop system, a field test using fixed fertilization was conducted in Jintan of Changzhou, Jiangsu Province. After the four-year experiment, the weed seed species and density of the soil seed bank were investigated and the relationships among weed seed diversity, density, distribution, and fertilization were analyzed. Results showed that: fertilization reduced the number of weed species and the evenness and diversity index of the weed seed bank in a rice-wheat crop system; fertilization significantly reduced the total density of the weed seed bank, but increased the seed density of Beckmannia syzigachne, Alopecurus japonicus and A. aequalis, especially with the application of pig manure plus chemical fertilizers. Straw returning plus chemical fertilizer, organic fertilizer plus chemical fertilizer, and organic-inorganic compound fertilizer treatments had the same tendency to reduce the seed density of B. syzigachne, A. japonicus and A. aequalis. Fertilization significantly decreased the seed bank densities of broadleaf weeds. Organic fertilizers had a tendency to increase the seed bank density of Veronica undulate and Cnidium monnieri. Application of pig manure compost increased the seed bank density of Monochoria vaginalis. Therefore, different weed species had different preferences to different fertilizers as the dominant species composition of the weed seed bank was influenced by different fertilization techniques.

Key words: chemical fertilizer, organic fertilizers plus chemical fertilizer, straw returning, organic and inorganic fertilizer, soil weed seed bank, rice-wheat cropping

Fig. 1

Effects of different fertilization treatments on the density of soil weed seed bank (mean±SD). Different small letters meant significant difference among treatments at P < 0.05. CK: No fertilizer; F: 100% Chemical fertilizer; M1F1: Pig manure compost (3,000 kg/ha) + 70% chemical fertilizer; M2F2: Pig manure compost (6,000 kg/ha) + 50% chemical fertilizer; SF: Straw return + 100% chemical fertilizer; SM1F1: Straw return + pig manure compost (3,000 kg/ha) + 70% chemical fertilizer; SM2F1: Straw return + pig manure compost (6,000 kg/ha) + 70% chemical fertilizer; MOI1: Commercial fertilizer of pig manure mixed with chemical fertilizer + urea; MOI2: Commercial fertilizer of pig manure mixed with chemical fertilizer. The same below."

Table 1

Effects of different fertilization treatments on the weed seed density of weed seed bank under rice-wheat cropping system (mean±SD) (ind./m2)"

Table 2

Effects of different fertilization treatments on weed species diversity of soil seed bank (mean ± SD)"

Species richness (S)
Shannon-Wiener index (H′)
Pielou evenness index (J)
Simpson index (D)
CK 12.25 ± 0.96a 0.60 ± 0.23a 0.24 ± 0.10a 0.24 ± 0.08a
F 10.25 ± 2.50ab 0.44 ± 0.34a 0.19 ± 0.14a 0.25 ± 0.08a
M1F1 10.50 ± 0.58ab 0.56 ± 0.17a 0.25 ± 0.07a 0.27 ± 0.11a
M2F2 11.25 ± 2.06ab 0.50 ± 0.06a 0.21 ± 0.04a 0.26 ± 0.04a
SF 9.75 ± 0.50ab 0.57 ± 0.30a 0.26 ± 0.14a 0.23 ± 0.07a
SM1F1 9.25 ± 2.50b 0.34 ± 0.21a 0.15 ± 0.08a 0.28 ± 0.15a
SM2F1 10.50 ± 1.91ab 0.44 ± 0.13a 0.19 ± 0.06a 0.23 ± 0.07a
MOI1 9.75 ± 1.26ab 0.39 ± 0.07a 0.18 ± 0.04a 0.21 ± 0.05a
MOI2 9.75 ± 1.50ab 0.40 ± 0.09a 0.18 ± 0.04a 0.18 ± 0.05a

Fig. 2

The canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of different fertilization, straw returning and number of weed seeds. F, chemical fertilizer; I, inorganic fertilizer; M, pig manure; MO, pig manure organic fertilizer; S, straw. Italic characters represent different fertilizer treatments and the treatments are the same as in Fig. 1; □ are fertilizer measures; △ are weed species. SP1, Beckmannia syzigachne; SP2, Alopecurus japonicus; SP3, A. aequalis; SP4, Mazus japonicus; SP5, Veronica undulata; SP6, Malachium aquaticum; SP7, Hemistepta lyrata; SP8, Cnidium monnieri; SP9, Lapsana apogonoides; SP10, Galium aparine var. tenerum; SP11, Leptochloa chinensis; SP12, Echinochloa crusgalli; SP13, Monochoria vaginalis; SP14, Lindernia procumbens; SP15, Rotala indica; SP16, Ludwigia prostrata; SP17, Rumex dentatus; SP18, Cyperus difformis; SP19, C. iria."

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