Biodiversity Science ›› 2014, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (3): 401-406.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.13226

• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

First report of Gyrodinium fusiforme and G. moestrupii (Dinophyceae) in China Sea waters

Haifeng Gu1, *(), Zhaohe Luo1, Lili Liu2, Yue Gao3   

  1. 1. Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, Fujian 361005
    2. Marine and Fishery Institute of Xiamen, Xiamen, Fujian 361005
    3. State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005
  • Received:2013-10-22 Accepted:2014-02-26 Online:2014-06-04
  • Gu Haifeng E-mail:haifenggu@yahoo.com

The athecate dinoflagellate genus Gyrodinium includes heterotrophic species that prey on other dinoflagellates, and thus play an important role in marine ecology. Information about the Gyrodinium diversity along the coast of China is limited. Here we report on the characteristics of two species, Gyrodinium fusiforme Kofoid & Swezy and Gyrodinium moestrupii Yoon, Kang, and Jeong that were isolated from a Karenia mikimotoi bloom sample in the East China Sea. The cells of G. fusiforme were fusiform with a length of 48.0-58.0 μm and a width of 18.0-23.0 μm. Cells of G. moestrupii were also fusiform and approximately 30 μm long and 15 μm wide. Partial large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA sequences were obtained from single cells of G. fusiforme and G. moestrupii and phylogenetic trees were built using maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI). In the phylogenetic trees the genus Gyrodinium is monophyletic, and G. fusiforme groups together with G. fissum, but separates from G. spirale although they are similar in morphology. G. fusiforme and G. moestrupii can prey on Karenia mikimotoii and Prorocentrum dentatum respectively. The high abundance of G. fusiforme during K. mikimotoi bloom suggests it may play a role in bloom decline.

Key words: Gyrodinium fusiforme, Gyrodinium moestrupii, Karenia mikimotoi, LSU rDNA, harmful algal blooms

Fig. 1-10

Fig. 1-10 Morphological structure of Gyrodinium fusiforme and G. moestrupii under light microscopy (LM) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). 1, Ventral view of G. fusiforme, showing surface striations and cingulum displacement (LM); 2, The same cell in Fig. 1 in different focus, showing the ellopsoidal nucleus (N) and a prey inside (arrow) (LM); 3, Ventral view of G. fusiforme, showing surface striations and cingulum displacement (SEM); 4, Detail of the apical groove of G. fusiforme (arrow) (SEM); 5, Ventral view of G. fusiforme, showing surface striations and cingulum displacement (SEM); 6, Dorsal view of G. fusiforme, showing surface striations (SEM); 7, Detail of the sulcus of G. fusiforme (SEM); 8, G. fusiforme is preying on a Karenia mikimotoi cell (SEM); 9, A living cell of G. moestrupii (LM); 10, A DAPI stained G. moestrupii cell, showing the spherical nucleus (N) and a Prorocentrum dentatum cell inside (arrow) (LM)."

Fig. 11

Phylogeny of Gyrodinium fusiforme and G. moestrupii inferred from partial large subunit rDNA sequence based on Bayesian inference (BI). Alexandrium leei and A. taylori were selected as outgroups. Numbers at nodes represent the result of the ML bootstrap analysis (one thousand bootstraps performed) and Bayesian posterior probabilities (left: ML bootstrap support values; right: Bayesian posterior probabilities). Only ML bootstrap support value greater than 50 and Bayesian posterior probabilities greater than 0.7 were listed. * indicates maximal support."

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