Biodiversity Science ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (6): 554-563.doi: 10.17520/biods.2018002

• Original Papers • Previous Article     Next Article

Comparison of morphology, photosynthesis, and growth among Xanthium strumarium, X. sibiricum and their hybrid under different nitrogen levels

Chenyang Xue1, Yufeng Xu1, Bo Qu1, 2, *()   

  1. 1 College of Biological Technology, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110161
    2 Liaoning Key Laboratory of Biological Invasions and Global Changes, Shenyang 110161
  • Received:2018-01-03 Accepted:2018-03-18 Online:2018-09-11
  • Qu Bo E-mail:syau_qb@163.com
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

Hybridization of invasive plants with native plants may alter their invasiveness. To investigate whether hybridization can promote plant invasions, we carried out a pot experiment to compare morphology, photosynthesis, and growth of the invasive plant Xanthium strumarium, the native plant X. sibiricum and their hybrid (X. strumarium♀ × X. sibiricum♂) under three nitrogen (N) levels, i.e. low, medium and high. Total biomass of the hybrid was smaller than that of X. strumarium but larger than that of X. sibiricum at the medium and high N levels. However, stem diameter of the hybrid was significantly higher than its parents at the low N level, its total chlorophyll content and transpiration rate were significantly higher than X. strumarium at the high N level, and its relative growth rate was higher than its parents at the low and high N levels. Moreover, plant height of X. strumarium was significantly lower than that of X. sibiricum at all three N levels, but plant height of the hybrid was not significantly different from that of X. sibiricum at the medium and high N levels. These characteristics may improve the hybrid’s ability to capture and use resources, which can not only help the hybrid adapt to a poor nutrient environment, but can also help to improve its advantages under favorable conditions. The higher growth rate of the hybrid may be associated with the invasiveness of X. strumarium.

Key words: Xanthium strumarium, Xanthium sibiricum, invasive plant, hybridization

Fig. 1

Three-dimensional ordination scatter plots of Xanthium sibiricum, X. strumarium and X. strumarium♀ × X. sibiricum♂"

Tab1

e 1 Effects of hybridization and nitrogen levels on morphology, growth and eco-physiological measures of plants"

杂交
Hybridization (H)
养分水平
Nitrogen levels (N)
交互作用
H × N
F P F P F P
株高 Height 13.698 0.001* 4.093 0.022* 1.849 0.167
茎粗 Diameter 1.424 0.238 3.940 0.025* 3.096 0.053
比叶面积 Specific leaf area 6.593 0.013* 1.286 0.285 1.745 0.184
根生物量 Root biomass 5.462 0.023* 5.323 0.008* 0.477 0.623
茎生物量 Stem biomass 13.334 0.001* 7.818 0.001* 1.539 0.224
叶生物量 Leaf biomass 4.603 0.036* 0.616 0.544 1.231 0.300
总生物量 Total biomass 12.908 0.001* 8.905 0.000* 1.244 0.296
根生物量比 Root biomass ratio 0.188 0.667 1.769 0.180 0.203 0.817
茎生物量比 Stem biomass ratio 0.007 0.934 0.598 0.553 0.155 0.857
叶生物量比 Leaf biomass ratio 0.907 0.345 4.829 0.012* 0.207 0.814
根冠比 Root mass/Crown mass 0.126 0.724 2.174 0.124 0.015 0.985
蒸腾速率 Transpiration rate 0.470 0.496 2.477 0.093 9.622 0.000*
气孔导度 Stomatal conductance 0.505 0.480 2.152 0.126 6.325 0.003*
胞间CO2浓度 Intercellular CO2 concentration 0.413 0.523 10.364 0.000* 7.174 0.002*
叶绿素含量 Chlorophyll content 7.019 0.011* 3.719 0.031* 17.131 0.000*
最大净光合速率 Maximum net photosynthetic rate 2.399 0.127 0.250 0.780 0.768 0.469
净同化速率 Net assimilation rate 0.001 0.976 3.490 0.038* 3.335 0.043*
相对生长速率 Relative growth rate 6.893 0.011* 6.247 0.004* 7.706 0.001*

Fig. 2

Morphology of Xanthium sibiricum, X. strumarium and X. strumarium♀ × X. sibiricum♂ at different nitrogen levels (mean ± SE). Within the same nitrogen level, different small letters indicate significant differences among the three species (P < 0.05). N0, Effective nitrogen content 10.34 mg/kg; N50, Effective nitrogen content 50 mg/kg; N90, Effective nitrogen content 90 mg/kg."

Fig. 3

Biomass characteristics of Xanthium sibiricum, X. strumarium and X. strumarium♀ × X. sibiricum♂ at different nitrogen levels (mean ± SE). Within the same nitrogen level, different small letters indicate significant differences among the three species (P < 0.05). N0, Effective nitrogen content 10.34 mg/kg; N50, Effective nitrogen content 50 mg/kg; N90, Effective nitrogen content 90 mg/kg."

Fig. 4

Biomass allocation of Xanthium sibiricum, X. strumarium and X. strumarium♀ × X. sibiricum♂ at different nitrogent levels (mean ± SE). Within the same nitrogen level, different small letters indicate significant differences among the three species (P < 0.05). N0, Effective nitrogen content 10.34 mg/kg; N50, Effective nitrogen content 50 mg/kg; N90, Effective nitrogen content 90 mg/kg."

Fig. 5

Photosynthetic parameters of Xanthium sibiricum, X. strumarium and X. strumarium♀ × X. sibiricum♂ at different nutrient levels (mean ± SE). Within the same nitrogen level, different small letters indicate significant differences among the three species (P < 0.05). N0, Effective nitrogen content 10.34 mg/kg; N50, Effective nitrogen content 50 mg/kg; N90, Effective nitrogen content 90 mg/kg; Pmax, Maximum net photosynthetic rate; Gs, Stomatal conductance; Tr, Transpiration rate; Ci, Intercellular CO2 concentration."

Fig. 6

Growth characteristics of Xanthium sibiricum, X. strumarium and X. strumarium♀ × X. sibiricum♂ at different nitrogen levels (mean ± SE). Within the same nitrogen level, different small letters indicate significant differences among the three species (P < 0.05). N0, Effective nitrogen content 10.34 mg/kg; N50, Effective nitrogen content 50 mg/kg; N90, Effective nitrogen content 90 mg/kg."

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