Biodiversity Science ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (9): 924-933.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017172

• On the Mandate of Botanical Gardens • Previous Article     Next Article

“Science, art and responsibility”: the scientific and social functional changes of a 500-year history of botanical gardens. I. Artistic appearance

Hongwen Huang*()   

  1. South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650
  • Received:2017-06-10 Accepted:2017-09-02 Online:2017-10-04
  • Huang Hongwen E-mail:huanghw@scbg.ac.cn

The modern botanical gardens that originated in mid-16th century with the rise of natural sciences and gardening arts during the late European renaissance, reached its heyday during the 18th century when Western colonizers explored, studied, collected, and spread plants all over the world. The 500-year history of botanical gardens is full of human curiosity through the exploration of the mysteries of nature and exotic plants, a gradual cognitive history of human exploration of nature, the use and transformation of nature, and harmonious coexistence with nature. This process in the history of humans begins in a chaotic and disordered plant kingdom and results in classified cognition. The paper attempts to analyze the progress of scientific research and the changes of social functions in the world of botanical gardens in the past 500 years from the dimensions of science and art, and uses history as a mirror to examine the future development and historic undertakings of Chinese botanical gardens. This article starts with artistic appearance to provide an overview of the 500-year development process of the world’s botanical gardens, while focusing on milestone events of the history in order to provide reference of thinking for Chinese botanical garden community.

Key words: botanical garden planning and design, garden art, landscape design, colonial agriculture, royal garden

Table 1

Main botanical gardens established during the16-19th century"

年份 植物园 Botanical garden 国家 Country 备注 Note
16-17世纪 16-17th century
1543 比萨植物园 Pisa 意大利 Italy
1545 帕多瓦植物园 Padua 意大利 Italy 最初1542年 Initially 1542
1545 佛罗伦萨植物园 Firenze 意大利 Italy
1547 博洛尼亚植物园 Bologna 意大利 Italy 1568年重建 Rebuilt in 1568
1560 苏黎世植物园 Zurich 瑞士 Switzerland
1567 瓦伦西亚植物园 Valencia 西班牙 Spain
1579 莱比锡植物园 Leipzig 德国 Germany 1590年重建 Rebuilt in 1590
1590 莱顿植物园 Leiden 荷兰 Holland 1587年开始 Preparation started in 1587
1593 海德堡植物园 Heidelberg 德国 Germany
1597 巴黎植物园 Paris 法国 France 1635年重建、命名 Rebuilt, renamed in 1635
1598 蒙彼利埃植物园 Montpellier 法国 France
1605 吉森植物园 Giessen 德国 Germany
1620 施特拉斯堡植物园 Strasburg 德国 Germany
1621 牛津植物园 Oxford 英国 UK 常误为1622年 Usually mistaken 1622
1629 耶拿植物园 Jena 德国 Germany
1657 乌普萨拉植物园 Uppsala 瑞典 Sweden 1741年后由林奈重建 Rebuilt after 1741 by Linnaeus
1670 爱丁堡植物园 Edinburgh 英国 UK
1673 切尔西药用植物园 Chelsea Physic 英国 UK
1679 柏林植物园 Berlin 德国 Germany
1682 阿姆斯特丹植物园 Amsterdam 荷兰 Holland
1684 日本小石川植物园 Koishikawa 日本 Japan
18-19世纪 18-19th century
1713 圣彼得堡植物园 St. Petersburg 俄国 Russia
1735 庞普勒穆斯热带植物园 Pamplemousses 毛里求斯 Mauritius 首个热带植物园 The first tropic botanical garden
1759 皇家邱园 Kew, London 英国 UK
1762 剑桥植物园 Cambridge 英国 UK 1831年迁移至现处 Moved to current site in 1831
1764 圣文森特热带植物园 St. Vincent 圣文森特和格林纳丁斯
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
1779 巴斯热带植物园 Bath 牙买加 Jamaica
1787 加尔各答植物园 Calcutta 印度 India 曾称皇家植物园 Also known as Royal Botanical Garden of India
1790 爱尔兰国立植物园 National Botanic
Gardens of Ireland
爱尔兰 Ireland
1805 哈佛大学植物园 Harvard University 美国 USA
1808 里约热带植物园 Rio de Janeiro 巴西 Brazil
1816 悉尼植物园 Sydney 澳大利亚 Australia 或称皇家悉尼植物园 Also known as Royal Botanic Garden at Sydney
1817 格拉斯哥植物园 Glasgow 英国 UK
1817 特立尼达热带植物园 Trinidad 特立尼达和多巴哥
Trinidad and Tobago
1817 茂物植物园 Bogor 印度尼西亚 Indonesia
1821 佩拉德尼亚植物园 Peradeniya 斯里兰卡 Sri Lanka 或称皇家植物园(始于1371年) Also known as Royal Botanic Garden (initially established in 1371)
1822 慕尼黑植物园 Munich 德国 Germany
1849 德班热带植物园 Durban 南非 South Africa
1853 墨尔本植物园 Melbourne 澳大利亚 Australia
1859 新加坡植物园 Singapore 新加坡 Singapore
1859 密苏里植物园 Missouri 美国 USA
1872 阿诺德树木园 Arnold arboretum 美国 USA
1891 纽约植物园 New York 美国 USA

Fig. 1

Padua Botanical Garden founded in the middle of 16th century (1545, Italy) (Photo provided by Padua Botanical Garden,which was painted by Andrea Tosini in 1840s)"

Fig. 2

Leiden Botanical Garden founded in late 16th century (1590, Holland) (Photo source: https://en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Hortus_ Botanicus_Leiden#/media/File: Hortus_botanicus_leiden.gif; painted by Jan Cornelisz in 1610)."

Fig. 3

Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew founded in 18th century (map showing addition to Kew Garden during 1760-1908). Photo source: https://www.kew. org/blogs/library-art-and-archives/great-broad-walk-borders-history-and-design."

Fig. 4

A glimpse of the landscaping design of New York Botanical Garden founded in the 19th century. Photo source: https:// www.nybg.org/about/institutional-information/125th-anniversary-strategic-plan/)"

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