Biodiversity Science ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (1): 36-43.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017124

• Methodologies • Previous Article     Next Article

Algorithm improvements and applications for biological conservation security patterns

Jie Chen, Nianxing Zhou*(), Zhuomin Tao   

  1. School of Geography Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023
  • Received:2017-04-19 Accepted:2017-12-04 Online:2018-05-05
  • Zhou Nianxing E-mail:zhounianxing@263.net
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

Using biological movement as a basis, landscape security patterns are an effective approach to biological conservation. This study probes the recognition technique to buffer zones with the aid of utility formulas, and improves the method of recognition of ecological corridors with the help of gradient descent algorithms. These habit islets, which are located within low-resistance areas outside the buffer zone and of a certain distance from suitable sources for the subsistence of targeted protected species, can be considered source candidates. Regions, which are situated within high-resistance areas inside the buffer zone and close to unsuitable sources for maintaining targeted protected species, can be categorized in ecological restoration areas. The intersection between ecological corridors and high-resistance areas should be identified as a key point for ecological restoration. Taking the Wulingyuan Scenic and Historic Interest Area (WSA) as an empirical case, the study formulates the landscape security pattern of Macaca mulatta, in which the core area of the reserve is comprised of four discrete source Macaca mulatta habitats and is supplemented by three source candidates. A few ecological corridors and connections between sources that aimed to improve connectivity of the inter-population were delimited, and strategic points of ecological restoration are discerned. This study not only identifies buffer zones and ecological corridors in landscape security patterns but also attaches great practical significance to biological conservation exemplified by the Macaca mulatta population in WSA.

Key words: landscape security pattern, algorithm, Wulingyuan Scenic and Historic Interest Area, Macaca mulatta

Fig. 1

Functional relationship between cumulative resistance and area"

Fig. 2

Sketch map of Wulingyuan Scenic and Historic Interest Area"

Table 1

The factors and weights of environmental resistance"

阻力因子 Resistance factor 权重 Weight
植被覆盖类型 Vegetation cover type 0.4
高程 Elevation 0.2
距水源地的距离 Distance from water 0.1
距河流的距离 Distance from rivers 0.2
距公路的距离 Distance from roads 0.06
距游步道的距离 Distance from walking trails 0.04

Fig. 3

Landscape resistance map of Shijiayan"

Fig. 4

Buffer zone drawn by boundary equation"

Fig. 5

Buffer zone drawn by resistance ranking"

Table 2

The factors and weights in selection of new source"

因子
Factors
条件
Selecting condition
权重
Weight
猕猴生境适宜度指数[0, 1]
Habitat suitability index for Macaca mulatta [0, 1]
≥ 0.7 0.7
景观异质性
Landscape heterogeneity
≥ 2 0.1
斑块面积 Patch area ≥ 0.4 km2 0.1
斑块形状指数[0, 1]
Patch shape index [0, 1]
≥ 0.6 0.1

Fig. 6

Security pattern for the protection of Macaca mulatta"

1 Cheng C, Xiao Y, Ouyang ZY, Rao EM (2013) Natural landscape valuation of Wulingyuan Scenic Area in Zhangjiajie City. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 33, 771-779.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[成程, 肖燚, 欧阳志云, 饶恩明 (2013) 张家界武陵源风景区自然景观价值评估. 生态学报, 33, 771-779.]
2 Feng SH, Sha R (2006) On ancient village scenery field theory and scenery safety pattern. Geography and Geo-information Science, 22, 91-94.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[冯淑华, 沙润 (2006) 古村落场理论及景观安全格局探讨. 地理与地理信息科学, 22, 91-94.]
3 Forman RT (1995) Land Mosaics: The Ecology of Landscapes and Regions. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
4 Huang GP, Zhou NX (2016) Geodesign in developing countries: The example of the master plan for Wulingyuan National Scenic Area, China. Landscape and Urban Planning, 156, 81-91.
5 Li H, Yi N, Yao WJ, Wang SQ, Li ZY, Yang SH (2011) Shangri-La County ecological land use planning based on landscape security pattern. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 31, 5928-5936.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[李晖, 易娜, 姚文璟, 王思琪, 李志英, 杨树华 (2011) 基于景观安全格局的香格里拉县生态用地规划. 生态学报, 31, 5928-5936.]
6 Li J, Zhang YY, Zhu YM (2017) Research on biodiversity conservation of Beidaihe New District based on landscape security pattern. Research of Soil and Water Conservation, 24, 306-310.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[李静, 张莹莹, 朱永明 (2017) 基于景观安全格局的北戴河新区生物多样性保护研究. 水土保持研究, 24, 306-310.]
7 Li JH, Liu XH (2006) Research of the nature reserve zonation based on the least-cost distance model. Journal of Natural Resources, 21, 217-224.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[李纪宏, 刘雪华 (2006) 基于最小费用距离模型的自然保护区功能分区. 自然资源学报, 21, 217-224.]
8 Ma J (2016) Biodiversity protection strategy under the background of ecological environment threshold and the tourism carrying capacity—According to the core of the world natural heritage Wulingyuan Scenic Area as an example. Economic Geography, 36, 195-202.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[马骏 (2016) 基于生态环境阈限与旅游承载力背景下生物多样性保护策略研究——以世界自然遗产武陵源核心景区为例. 经济地理, 36, 195-202.]
9 Tie J, Jin S, Chen YB, Qin YY, Zhang GP, Ru WM (2014) Floristic characteristics of food plants of Macaca mulatta in Manghe National Nature Reserve Shanxi, China. Acta Botanica Boreali-Occidentalia Sinica, 34,1482-1488.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[铁军, 金山, 陈艳彬, 秦永燕, 张桂萍, 茹文明 (2014) 山西蟒河国家级自然保护区猕猴食源植物区系特征. 西北植物学报, 34, 1482-1488.]
10 Tie J, Li YF, Wang X, Bai FL, Cui FT, Jin S (2015) Species diversity of forest community in Macaca mulatta habitat in Lishan National Nature Reserve, Shanxi. Chinese Journal of Ecology, 34, 3009-3015.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[铁军, 李燕芬, 王霞, 白凤麟, 崔方天, 金山 (2015) 山西历山国家级自然保护区猕猴栖息地森林群落物种多样性. 生态学杂志, 34, 3009-3015.]
11 Wang RH, Li XY, Zhang SW, Li YB, Cao C (2014) Research for landscape ecological security pattern and early warning in farming-pastoral zone of Northeast China—a case study on Tongyu County in Jilin Province. Geography and Geo-information Science, 30, 111-115.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[王让虎, 李晓燕, 张树文, 李艳博, 曹琛 (2014) 东北农牧交错带景观生态安全格局构建及预警研究——以吉林省通榆县为例. 地理与地理信息科学, 30, 111-115.]
12 Wang SY, Ou MH (2013) Zoning for regulating of construction land based on landscape security pattern. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 33, 4425-4435.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[王思易, 欧名豪 (2013) 基于景观安全格局的建设用地管理分区. 生态学报, 33, 4425-4435.]
13 Wu CC (2008) Research on Tourism Resources of Zhangjiajie National Forest Park. China Tourism Press, Beijing.(in Chinese)
[吴楚材 (2008) 张家界国家森林公园本底旅游资源研究. 中国旅游出版社, 北京.]
14 Wu ZW (2008) Research on Landscape Tourism Resources of Zhangjiajie National Forest Park. China Tourism Press, Beijing.(in Chinese)
[吴章文 (2008) 张家界国家森林公园景观旅游资源研究. 中国旅游出版社, 北京.]
15 Yao Y, Zhang P, Yan LJ, Fan J (2011) Risk pattern analysis of soil erosion based on RUSLE and SP—A case study of Diebu County, Gansu Province. Bulletin of Soil and Water Conservation, 31, 161-167.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[姚妤, 张沛, 严力蛟, 樊吉 (2011) 基于RUSLE和景观安全格局的土壤侵蚀风险格局研究—以甘肃省甘南藏族自治州迭部县为例. 水土保持通报, 31, 161-167.]
16 Yin HG, Fei JJ, Xie S (2011) A perception research on the residents benefits of scenic spot from the perspective of ecological tourism—A case study of Wulingyuan Scenic Area. Journal of Hunan University (Social Sciences), 25(5), 81-87.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[尹华光, 费建杰, 谢莎 (2011) 生态旅游视角下景区居民利益感知研究——以武陵源风景区为例. 湖南大学学报(社会科学版), 25(5), 81-87.]
17 You WB, He DJ, Hong W, Wu LY, Ji ZR, You HM, Tan Y, Zheng XY (2014) Identification for tourism disturbance sensitive areas and protection based on landscape security pattern in world mixed heritage site Wuyishan Scenery District. Mountain Research, 32, 195-204.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[游巍斌, 何东进, 洪伟, 巫丽芸, 纪志荣, 游惠明, 谭勇, 郑晓燕 (2014) 基于景观安全格局的武夷山风景名胜区旅游干扰敏感区判识与保护. 山地学报, 32, 195-204.]
18 Yu KJ (1996) Security patterns and surface model and in landscape planning. Landscape and Urban Planning, 36, 1-17.
19 Yu KJ, Wang SS, Li DH, Li CB (2009) The function of ecological security patterns as an urban growth frame work in Beijing. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 29, 1189-1204.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[俞孔坚, 王思思, 李迪华, 李春波 (2009) 北京市生态安全格局及城市增长预景. 生态学报, 29, 1189-1204.]
20 Zhuang DC, Deng XZ, Zhan JY (2004) Assessment of the environmental quality for Wulingyuan Scenic Spot in Hunan Province. Geographical Research, 23, 192-200.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[庄大春, 邓祥征, 战金艳 (2004) 武陵源风景区环境质量评估. 地理研究, 23, 192-200.]
[1] Xiangyan Cui,Wenjuan Wang,Xiaoqiang Yang,Shu Li,Shengyuan Qin,Jun Rong. Potential distribution of wild Camellia oleifera based on ecological niche modeling [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2016, 24(10): 1117-1128.
[2] MA Song-Mei, ZHANG Ming-Li, ZHANG Hong-Xiang, MENG Hong-Hu, CHEN Xi. Predicting potential geographical distributions and patterns of the relic plant Gymnocarpos przewalskii using Maximum Entropy and Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Prediction [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2010, 34(11): 1327-1335.
[3] Zehao Shen, Qiyan Lu. The Rapoport’s rule for the geographic patterns of species range size [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2009, 17(6): 560-567.
[4] ZUO Wen-Yun, LAO Ni, GENG Yu-Ying, MA Ke-Ping. PREDICTING SPECIES′ POTENTIAL DISTRIBUTION—SVM COMPARED WITH GARP [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2007, 31(4): 711-719.
[5] JIN Sen. A REVIEW ON METHODS FOR MEASURING COMMUNITY STRUCTURAL COMPLEXITY [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2006, 30(6): 1030-1039.
[6] CHEN Yang, CHEN AnPing, FANG JingYun. Geographical distribution patterns of endangered fishes, amphibians, reptiles and mammals and their hotspots in China: a study based on “China Red Data Book of Endangered Animals” [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2002, 10(4): 359-368.
[7] WANG Yong-Jun, LIAO Wen-Bo, CHANG Hong, . Analysis on vegetative food resources and feeding habits of Macaca mulatta from Neilingding Island, Guangdong Province [J]. Biodiv Sci, 1999, 07(2): 97-105.
[8] Zhang Feng, Shanggua Tieliang. The Application of the Ordered Plot Clustering to the Vertical Belt Partitioning of Vegetation of Main Mountains Shanxi [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 1997, 21(3): 267-273.
[9] Zhang Feng, Shangguan Tie-liang. Stepwise Clustering and Its Application to Vegetation Classification [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 1996, 20(6): 561-567.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
[1] ZHOU Song-Dong, HE Xing-Jin*, YU Yan, XU Jie-Mei. Karyotype studies on twenty-one populations of eight species in Allium section Rhiziridium[J]. J Syst Evol, 2007, 45(2): 207 -216 .
[2] . [J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2015, 50(6): 765 -767 .
[3] Danlong Jing, Jiang Ma, Bo Zhang, Yiyang Han, Zhixiong Liu, Faju Chen. Expression Analysis of MwAG in Different Organs and Developmental Stages of Magnolia wufengensis[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2013, 48(2): 145 -150 .
[4] CHEN Min, LI Ai-Fen and ZHOU Bai-Cheng. Structural Analysis of Peptides of PSⅡ Light-harvesting Complexes in Siphonous Green Algae, Codium fragile[J]. J Integr Plant Biol, 2002, 44(2): 147 -151 .
[5] ZHOU Yong, ZHENG Lu-Yu, ZHU Min-Jie, LI Xia, REN An-Zhi, and GAO Yu-Bao. Effects of fungal endophyte infection on soil properties and microbial communities in the host grass habitat[J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2014, 38(1): 54 -61 .
[6] TANG Zhi-Yao, FANG Jing-Yun, ZHANG Ling. Patterns of woody plant species diversity along environmental gradients on Mt. Taibai, Qinling Mountains[J]. Biodiv Sci, 2004, 12(1): 115 -122 .
[7] Puqing Song, Jing Zhang, Longshan Lin, Zhangcheng Xu, Xiaoming Zhu. Nekton species composition and biodiversity in Taiwan Strait[J]. Biodiv Sci, 2012, 20(1): 32 -40 .
[8] Wang Shu-bo. Two New Species of Genus Giffordia from China[J]. J Syst Evol, 1994, 32(4): 375 -377 .
[9] Volker KNOOP. Plant mitochondrial genome peculiarities evolving in the earliest vascular plant lineages[J]. J Syst Evol, 2013, 51(1): 1 -12 .
[10] MIAO Bao-He, LI Xiang-Dong, LIU Bo, HE Qi-Ping, ZHU Tao, LIU Xing-Tan, ZHU Qi-Yu, QIAO Guang-Fa, FAN Ting-An, CHEN Cheng-Jun, DONG Qing-Yu, YU Song-Lie. EFFECT OF WAVING-CANOPY CULTURAL TYPE ON ACTIVE OXYGEN AND MEMBRANE LIPID METABOLISM PEROXIDATION OF HIGH OIL SOYBEAN LEAVES[J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2008, 32(3): 673 -680 .