Biodiversity Science ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (9): 999-1007.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017086

• Original Papers: Plant Diversity • Previous Article     Next Article

Assessment of forest conservation in the Cangshan Nature Reserve based on propensity score matching

Bing Chen, Fangzheng Liu, Yubo Zhang, Jinhong Du, Wei Wang*(), Junsheng Li   

  1. Biodiversity Research Center, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
  • Received:2017-03-20 Accepted:2017-05-17 Online:2017-10-04
  • Wang Wei E-mail:wang.wei@craes.org.cn
  • About author:# Co-first authors

The establishment of protected areas is one of the most common measures of biodiversity conservation. Regular assessment can help improve management and promote conservation in protected areas. According to administrative divisions, we divided the Cangshan Nature Reserve into three parts: Dali City, Eryuan County and Yangbi County, as sub-study areas. The evaluation was based on propensity score matching and paired-samples t-test. Elevation, slope, distance to the nearest settlement, and distance to the nearest road were four chosen covariates. Since the Cangshan Nature Reserve was upgraded to the national level in 1994, we compared forest changes between 1995 and 2015. Partial correlation analysis was carried out between each covariate and forest change to analyze the impact factors. Results indicated that in Dali City, the forest change value inside the Cangshan Nature Reserve was significantly higher than that found outside. Forest coverage inside the Cangshan Nature Reserve in Dali City was the highest among all regions. The forest change rates both inside and outside the Cangshan Nature Reserve in Eryuan County were higher than the other two counties. There was no significant difference in forest change value between areas inside and outside of the nature reserve in Eryuan County. In Yangbi County, the forest change rates both inside and outside of Cangshan Nature Reserve were the lowest among three counties, but the forest change value found within 10 km outside of the nature reserve was significantly higher than that found in areas beyond 10 km, which indicates that the existence of the Cangshan Nature Reserve performed positive neighborhood leakage in surrounding areas within 10 km. The four covariates all affected forest change in different areas in a variety of ways. The propensity score matching and sub-regional methodology for the assessment of the Cangshan Nature Reserve provided a new technical method and example for other conservation assessment studies.

Key words: propensity score matching, neighborhood leakage, assessment of conservation, forest coverage change

Fig. 1

Forest coverage of Dali City, Eryuan County and Yangbi County in 1995 and 2015"

Table 1

Overall condition of forest coverage inside and outside of Cangshan Nature Reserve in Dali City, Eryuan County and Yangbi County during 1995-2015"

子研究区域 Sub-study area 1995 2015 森林覆盖变化值 Forest coverage change
(km2)
森林变化率
Forest change
rate
森林面积
Forest area (km2)
森林覆盖率
Forest coverage
森林面积
Forest area (km2)
森林覆盖率
Forest coverage
大理市
Dali City
保护区内 Inside 166.15 78.74% 168.24 79.73% 2.09 1.26%
保护区外 Outside 284.05 28.61% 320.33 32.26% 36.28 12.77%
洱源县
Eryuan County
保护区内 Inside 32.73 71.15% 34.43 74.85% 1.700 5.19%
保护区外 Outside 1004.14 38.86% 1151.36 44.56% 147.22 14.66%
漾濞县
Yangbi County
保护区内 Inside 117.26 80.32% 113.98 78.07% -3.28 -2.80%
保护区外 Outside 740.91 49.26% 776.95 51.66% 36.04 4.86%

Table 2

Result of propensity score matching of three survey regions in Dali City (D), Eryuan County (E) and Yangbi County (Y). A refers to areas inside Cangshan Nature Reserve; B refers to areas within 10 km outside of Cangshan Nature Reserve; C refers to areas beyond 10 km from Cangshan Nature Reserve. Numbers in the table are sample values, which refers to the number of grids."

研究区段 Survey region 匹配前 Before matching 匹配成功 Matched 未匹配成功 Unmatched
对照组 Control 处理组 Treated 对照组 Control 处理组 Treated 对照组 Control 处理组 Treated
DA_DB 336 211 26 26 310 185
DA_DC 465 211 36 36 429 175
DB_DC 465 336 232 232 233 104
EA_EB 428 46 40 40 388 6
EA_EC 2,050 46 45 45 2,005 1
EB_EC 2,050 428 414 414 1,636 14
YA_YB 352 146 16 16 336 130
YA_YC 1,152 146 34 34 1,118 112
YB_YC 1152 352 338 338 814 14

Fig. 2

Comparison of forest coverage change during 1995-2015 inside Cangshan Nature Reserve among three survey regions in Dali City (D), Eryuan County (E) and Yangbi County (Y) (mean ± SD). A refers to areas inside Cangshan Nature Reserve; B refers to areas within 10 km outside of Cangshan Nature Reserve; C refers to areas beyond 10km from Cangshan Nature Reserve."

Table 3

Results of paired-samples t-test of forest coverage change during 1995-2015 among three survey regions in Dali City (D), Eryuan County (E) and Yangbi County (Y). A refers to areas inside Cangshan Nature Reserve; B refers to areas within 10 km outside of Cangshan Nature Reserve; C refers to areas beyond 10 km from Cangshan Nature Reserve."

DA_DB DA_DC DB_DC EA_EB EA_EC EB_EC YA_YB YA_YC YB_YC
t 3.553 3.187 0.535 0.246 -1.359 -1.943 -0.970 0.283 2.772
df 25 35 231 39 44 413 15 33 337
P 0.002* 0.003* 0.593 0.807 0.181 0.053 0.347 0.779 0.006*
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