Biodiversity Science ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (1): 48-54.doi: 10.17520/biods.2015159

• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Marine biodiversity evaluation based on the pressure-state-response (PSR) model of Changhai County, Liaoning Province

Bei Huang1, 2, *(), Na Wei1, Weijie Meng1, Mingxia Zhang3   

  1. 1 Zhoushan Marine Ecological Environment Monitoring Station, Zhoushan, Zhejiang 316021
    2 Joint Laboratory of Marine Ecosystem Monitoring and Health Assessment, Zhoushan, Zhejiang 316021
    3 Environment Monitoring Station of Changhai County, Dalian City, Liaoning Province, Changhai, Liaoning 116500
  • Received:2015-06-09 Accepted:2015-09-27 Online:2016-06-12
  • Huang Bei E-mail:bighb@163.com

Abstract: Biodiversity is the basis for survival and development of human society and it affects various aspects of modern life. In order to assess the marine biodiversity status in coastal areas of northern China, and to study the impacts of socio-economic development on the local marine biodiversity, we conducted a trial study in Changhai County. Changhai is the only island county in the China, which is also rich in various biological resources. As a famous northern fishery county, the primary industries in Changhai are marine fisheries and aquaculture. We collected data on social economic development, the ecological environment, and environmental protection in Changhai County during 2004-2013. We selected 19 indicators to build the marine biodiversity assessment framework based on the pressure-state-response (PSR) model, determined the weight values using the Analytical Hierarchy Process approach, and calculated the Marine Biodiversity Index. The results showed that the Marine Biodiversity Index reached a maximum value of 0.660 and thus matched to level “Good” in 2004, and then declined to 0.471 and to level “Medium” in 2013. During the investigated period, the state of marine biodiversity in 2004-2007 was better than that in 2008-2013. Changes in pressure, state, and response indices revealed that the trends of weighted scores of several pressure indicators, such as the discharge of industrial waste water, fixed asset investment, aquaculture of non-indigenous species, number of tourists, and port cargo all showed an obvious decreasing tendency, which suggest growing pressures on marine biodiversity, and potential impacts on biodiversity in Changhai.

Key words: PSR model, Marine Biodiversity Index, Changhai County

Table 1

Sampling sites of marine ecological environmental investigation"

站位号
Station no.
经度
Longitude (E)
纬度
Latitude (N)
D1 122°38°30? 39°15°45?
D3 122°35°05? 39°16°00?
D4 122°35°38? 39°16°55?
D5 122°34°20? 39°16°05?
X1 122°40°43? 39°13°50?
X2 122°41°30? 39°13°50?
LN043 122°45°10? 39°13°20?
LN046 122°38°30? 39°15°10?
LN071 122°34°24? 39°16°05?

Table 2

Analysis methods and equipment of marine ecological environmental investigations in this study"

项目
Item
采样器具
Sampling instrument
分析方法
Analysis method
方法来源
Method source
分析仪器
Analytical instrument
海水悬浮物 GO-FLOW采水器 重量法 GB17378.4-2007 电子天平
Suspended solid GO-FLOW bottle Weight method Electronic balance
溶解氧 GO-FLOW采水器 碘量法 GB17378.4-2007 Brand 滴定分析仪
Dissolve oxygen GO-FLOW bottle Iodimetry Brand automatic titrator
化学需氧量 GO-FLOW采水器 碱性高锰酸钾法 GB17378.4-2007 Vitlab 滴定分析仪
Chemical oxygen demand GO-FLOW bottle Basicity KMnO4 Vitlab automatic titrator
活性磷酸盐 GO-FLOW采水器 流动注射比色法 EPA 365.5-1997 Quaatro流动分析仪
Active phosphate GO-FLOW bottle Flow injection colorimetric method Quaatro flow analyzer
无机氮 GO-FLOW采水器 流动注射比色法 EPA 349.0-1997 Quaatro流动分析仪
Dissolved inorganic nitrogen GO-FLOW bottle Flow injection colorimetric method Quaatro flow analyzer
海水石油类 GO-FLOW采水器 荧光分光光度法 GB17378.4-2007 F230分光光度计
Seawater oil GO-FLOW bottle Fluorospectrophotometry F230 spectrophotometer
浮游植物 Ⅲ型浮游植物网 镜检 GB17378.7-2007 Leica DM4000B显微镜
Phytoplankton Plankton net Ⅲ Microscopic exam Leica DM4000B microscopy
底栖生物 静力式采泥器 镜检 GB17378.7-2007 Nikon-SMZ1500解剖镜
Benthos Van Veen grab sampler Microscopic exam Nikon-SMZ1500 anatomical lens

Table 3

Normalized weight for each assessing indicators of marine biodiversity in Changhai County"

压力
Pressure
状态
State
响应
Response
权重
Weight
人口密度 Population density 0.1402 0.0467
固定资产投资额 Fixed asset investment 0.0935 0.0312
外来物种养殖产量 Aquaculture of non-indigenous species 0.0935 0.0312
化肥使用量 Usage of fertilizer 0.0561 0.0187
工业废水排放量 Discharge of industrial waste water 0.0561 0.0187
旅游人数 Number of tourists 0.2804 0.0935
海上货运量 Port cargo 0.2804 0.0935
活性磷酸盐 Active phosphate 0.1533 0.0767
无机氮 Dissovled inorganic nitrogen 0.1533 0.0767
溶解氧 Dissolve oxygen 0.1533 0.0767
化学需氧量 Chemical oxygen demand 0.1533 0.0767
石油类 Oil 0.075 0.0375
悬浮物 Suspended solid 0.1533 0.0767
浮游植物种类 Phytoplankton species 0.0383 0.0192
浮游植物密度 Phytoplankton abundance 0.0511 0.0256
底栖生物种类 Benthos species 0.0307 0.0154
底栖生物密度 Benthos density 0.0383 0.0192
固废利用率 Percentage of solid waste utilized 0.5 0.0834
海洋保护区面积占有率 Percentage of marine protected area 0.5 0.0834

Table 4

Marine biodiversity index in Changhai County during 2004-2013"

指标 Index 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004
压力 Pressure
固定资产投资额 Fixed asset investment 0 0.0042 0.0204 0.0226 0.0241 0.0256 0.0281 0.0287 0.0306 0.0312
工业废水排放量 Discharge of industrial waste water 0.0174 0.0014 0.0017 0.0000 0.0000 0.0015 0.0036 0.0064 0.0187 0.0187
人口密度 Population density 0.0422 0.0422 0.0422 0.0421 0.0420 0.0420 0.0420 0.0419 0.0419 0.0394
化肥使用量 Usage of fertilizer 0.0079 0.0076 0.0154 0 0.0059 0.0106 0.0148 0.0151 0.0169 0.0187
外来物种养殖产量 Aquaculture of non- indigenous species 0 0.0050 0.0127 0.0168 0.0184 0.0241 0.0265 0.0263 0.0311 0.0311
旅游人数 Number of tourists 0 0.0131 0.0274 0.0388 0.0498 0.0599 0.0593 0.0764 0.0843 0.0935
海上货运量 Port cargo 0.0043 0 0.0016 0.0089 0.0162 0.0110 0.0611 0.0611 0.0788 0.0935
小计 Sum 0.0718 0.0736 0.1212 0.1291 0.1564 0.1747 0.2354 0.2560 0.3023 0.3259
状态 State
海水溶解无机氮 Seawater dissolved inorganic nitrogen 0.0501 0.0457 0.0399 0.0383 0.0388 0.0445 0.0396 0.0358 0.0330 0.0347
海水活性磷酸盐 Seawater active phosphate 0.0690 0.0715 0.0588 0.0485 0.0562 0.0639 0.0639 0.0613 0.0613 0.0690
海水悬浮物浓度 Seawater suspended solid 0.0765 0.0756 0.0750 0.0741 0.0739 0.0741 0.0739 0.0745 0.0747 0.0739
溶解氧 Dissolved oxygen 0.0204 0.0026 0.0102 0 0.0281 0.0307 0.0256 0.0256 0.0179 0.0153
化学需氧量 Chemical oxygen demand 0.0485 0.0562 0.0460 0.0485 0.0485 0.0460 0.0511 0.0562 0.0562 0.0460
海水石油类 Seawater oil 0.0349 0.0348 0.0356 0.0353 0.0353 0.0356 0.0354 0.0359 0.0365 0.0358
浮游植物种类数 Phytoplankton species 0.0115 0 0.0192 0 0.0192 0.0192 0.0192 0.0192 0.0192 0.0153
浮游植物密度 Phytoplankton abundance 0 0.0016 0.0256 0.0249 0.0138 0.0138 0.0138 0.0138 0.0138 0.0172
底栖生物种类数 Benthos species 0 0.0154 0.0092 0.0092 0.0092 0.0092 0.0092 0.0092 0.0092 0.0092
底栖生物密度 Benthos density 0 0.0192 0.0128 0.0106 0.0106 0.0106 0.0106 0.0106 0.0106 0.0106
小计 Sum 0.3109 0.3225 0.3321 0.2896 0.3337 0.3475 0.3423 0.3420 0.3324 0.3271
响应 Response
工业固废综合利用率 Percentage of solid waste utilized 0.0834 0.0710 0.0636 0.0720 0.0691 0.0715 0.0583 0.0267 0.0136 0.0022
海洋保护区面积占有率 Percentage of marine protected area 0.0045 0.0045 0.0045 0.0045 0.0045 0.0045 0.0045 0.0045 0.0045 0.0045
小计 Sum 0.0879 0.0755 0.0681 0.0765 0.0736 0.0760 0.0628 0.0312 0.0181 0.0067
海洋生物多样性指数 MBDI 0.4706 0.4716 0.5214 0.4951 0.5637 0.5982 0.6404 0.6292 0.6529 0.6597
等级 Grade
Medium
中Medium 中Medium 中Medium 中Medium 中Medium
Good

Good

Good

Good
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