生物多样性

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中国黑腹果蝇种组40种果蝇的核型多样性研究

钱远槐,张文燕,邓秋红,张菁,曾庆韬*,刘艳玲,李守涛   

  1. (湖北大学生命科学学院 武汉 430062)
  • 收稿日期:2005-12-07 修回日期:2006-03-23 出版日期:2006-05-20 发布日期:2006-05-20
  • 通讯作者: 曾庆韬

Karyotype diversity of Drosophila melanogaster species group in China

Yuanhuai Qian, Wenyan Zhang, Qiuhong Deng, Jing Zhang, Qingtao Zeng*, Yanling Liu, Shoutao Li   

  1. Faculty of Life Science, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062, China
  • Received:2005-12-07 Revised:2006-03-23 Online:2006-05-20 Published:2006-05-20
  • Contact: Qingtao Zeng

摘要:

通过传统的敲片、Giemsa染色的方法制片对中国黑腹果蝇种组(Drosophila melanogaster species group)8个种亚组40种果蝇的染色体进行了分析, 共发现18种核型, 即A、A′′、C、C′、C′′、C′′′、C′′′′、D、D′、D′′、E、E′、E′′、F、F′、G、H和I, 其中A、A′′、C′′′、C′′′′、D′′和F′为新发现的核型。8个种亚组的基本核型分别是: 嗜凤梨果蝇种亚组(D. ananassae subgroup)的核型为F、F′、G和H型; 牵牛花果蝇种亚组(D. elegans subgroup)的核型为A和A′′型; 细针果蝇种亚组(D. eugracilis subgroup)的核型为C型; 嗜榕果蝇种亚组(D. ficusphila subgroup)的核型为C′型; 黑腹果蝇种亚组(D. melanogaster subgroup)的核型为C和C′型; 山果蝇种亚组(D. montium subgroup) 的核型为C、C′、C′′、D、D′、D′′、E、E′、E′′和I型; 铃木氏果蝇种亚组(D. suzukii subgroup)的核型为C′′′和C′′′′型; 高桥氏果蝇种亚组(D. takahashii subgroup)的核型为C、C′′′和C′′′′型。透明翅果蝇(D. lucipennis)雌性核型2n=8, 雄性核型2n=7, 雄性Ⅳ号染色体为染色体单体。此外还发现, 吉川氏果蝇(D. kikkawai)、林氏果蝇(D. lini)、奥尼氏果蝇(D. ogumai)、拟嗜凤梨果蝇(D. pseudoananassae)和叔白颜果蝇(D. triauraria)5种果蝇有B染色体。本文确定了D. sp. like elegansD. sp. like nyinyiiD. sp. like trapezifrons1D. sp. like takahashiiD. sp. like trapezifrons2和D. sp. like auraria等6个未描述种的核型和1个新记录种吉里果蝇(D. giriensis)的核型。本研究证明了在黑腹果蝇种组内、亚组内、种内和单雌系内的核型多样性, 为果蝇遗传和进化提供了进一步的细胞学证据。

Abstract:

In the present study, 18 karyotypes in 40 species belonging to eight subgroups of Drosophila melanogaster species group in China were analyzed. Of the 18 karyotypes, six (A, A′′, C′′′, C′′′′, D′′ and F′) were novel. In the eight subgroups, F, F′, G and H were basic karyotypes for the Drosophila ananassae subgroup, A and A′′ for D. elegans subgroup, C for D. eugracilis subgroup, C′ for D. ficusphila subgroup, C and C′ for D. melanogaster subgroup, C, C′, C′′, D, D′, D′′, E, E′, E′′ and I for D. montium subgroup, C′′′ and C′′′′ for D. suzukii subgroup, and C, C′′′ and C′′′′ for D. takahashii subgroup. In D. lucipennis, the karyotype for female was 2n=8, while that for male was 2n=7, in which one of the chromosome Ⅳ was absent. In addition, B chromosomes were found in D. kikkawai, D. lini, D. ogumai, D. pseudoananassae, and D. triauraria. The karyotypes of six undescribed species were reported in this study, namely D. sp. like elegans, D. sp. like nyinyii, D. sp. like trapezifrons1, D. sp. like takahashii, D. sp. like trapezifrons2 and D. sp. like auraria. In this paper, the karyotype of a newly recorded species D. giriensis was also determined to be 2n=8, which be-longs to the C type. Our karyotype analysis reveals diversity in karyotypes of the Drosophila melanogaster species group in China, which will provide cytological evidence for further studies on genetics and evolution of Drosophila.