生物多样性 ›› 2007, Vol. 15 ›› Issue (6): 673-679.DOI: 10.1360/biodiv.070175

所属专题: 植物与传粉者相互作用

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

动物传粉植物花粉呈现时序的进化意义

陆婷, 谭敦炎*   

  1. 新疆农业大学林学院, 乌鲁木齐 830052
  • 出版日期:2007-11-20 发布日期:2007-11-20

Evolutionary implications of pollen presentation schedules in animal- pollinated plants

Ting Lu, Dunyan Tan*   

  1. College of Forestry Sciences, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi 830052
  • Online:2007-11-20 Published:2007-11-20

摘要: 由动物传粉的植物为了使供体花粉能够被高效地传递到受体柱头上, 进化出了多种多样的花部特征, 花粉呈现时序便是其中之一。植物主要通过包装机制和分摊机制控制花粉呈现的速度以限制昆虫一次拜访转移的花粉量。花粉呈现理论(PPT)认为: 花粉逐步呈现策略倾向于出现在传粉者数量丰富但传粉效率低的植物中, 而花粉同时呈现策略则多出现在传粉者少但传粉效率高的植物中。本文对花粉呈现时序的相关研究进行了总结, 重点介绍: (1) 限制花粉转移的花部机制; (2)花粉呈现理论; (3)花粉呈现时序的适应意义。目前的研究主要集中在花粉呈现时序对传粉动物的适应性上, 但环境因子对花粉呈现时序也有一定的影响。PPT数学模型还不能完全预测特定环境中植物的花粉呈现时序。因此, 有必要选择合适的植物类群, 从花部综合特征、传粉系统、交配系统和环境等方面进行综合研究, 进一步揭示动物传粉植物花粉呈现时序的适应意义。

Abstract: In order to donate pollen to recipient stigmas efficiently, animal-pollinated plants have evolved a variety of floral characteristics. Pollen presentation schedule is one of them. Plants can control the pace of pollen presentation and distribute pollen among pollinators by either packaging or dispensing mechanisms. Pollen presentation theory (PPT) predicts that gradual pollen presentation should be favored when pollinators are abundant or inefficient at delivering the pollen they remove; while synchronous pollen presentation should be favored when pollinators are infrequent or efficient at delivering the pollen they remove. Here, we present a review of recent advances in this field, with an emphasis on: (1) floral mechanisms restricting pollen removal; (2) pollen presentation theory; and (3) evolutionary advantages of pollen presentation schedules. Current research focuses on the adaptability of pollen presentation schedule to the pollinating animals, while environmental factors also work on the schedule. The PPT model cannot fully predict the pollen presentation temporal schedule of plants distributed in special environments, thus further combined studies and analyses are needed regarding floral syndromes, pollination systems, mating systems and environment factors in suit-able groups. These results will help us have a better understanding of the adaptive advantages of pollen pres-entation schedules.