生物多样性 ›› 2004, Vol. 12 ›› Issue (1): 29-43.doi: 10.17520/biods.2004005

所属专题: 探索中国山地植物多样性的分布规律

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

海南岛尖峰岭山地雨林的群落结构、物种多样性以及在世界雨林中的地位

方精云1, 李意德2, 朱彪1, 刘国华3, 周光益2   

  1. 1 (北京大学环境学院生态学系,北京大学生态学研究与教育中心,北京大学地表过程分析与模拟教育部重点实验室,北京 100871)
    2 (中国林科院热带林业研究所,广州 510520)
    3 (中国科学院生态环境研究中心,北京 100085)
  • 收稿日期:2003-06-12 修回日期:2003-09-10 出版日期:2004-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 方精云

Community structures and species richness in the montane rain forest of Jianfengling, Hainan Island, China

FANG Jing-Yun1, LI Yi-De2, ZHU Biao1, LIU Guo-Hua3, ZHOU Guang-Yi2   

  1. 1 Department of Ecology,College of Environmental Sicences,Center for Ecological Research & Education,and Key Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes of the Ministry of Education,Peking University,Beijing 100871
    2 Research institute of Tropical Froestry,Chinese Academy of Forestry,Guangzhou 510250
    3 Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100085
  • Received:2003-06-12 Revised:2003-09-10 Online:2004-01-20
  • Contact: FANG Jing-Yun

位于海南岛西南部的尖峰岭是目前我国为数不多、保存得较为完好的具有热带雨林性质的森林类型。在较典型的山地雨林中,设置1 hm2的固定样地,记录到DBH≥5.0 cm的乔木171种,隶属于52科93属,总株数1099株,其中乔木种株数为1024。样地的Shannon-Wiener指数(H′)、均匀度指数(E)和Simpson指数(D)分别为4.11、0.80和0.97,但取样面积和测定个体的起始大小等取样技术对物种多样性指数有显著的影响。随着取样面积的增加,H′值逐渐增加;但超过了4000 m2以后,增加不明显。ED值在取样面积达到2000 m2后,基本保持不变。随着测定个体起始直径的增加,物种数、科数、H′D都呈现出明显的减少趋势,而E值增加。径级频度分布的分析表明,该山地雨林的垂直结构可以划分成4个层次,每个层次的个体大小在空间上呈均匀或随机分布。从气候学、科属组成以及与世界热带雨林物种多样性的比较等方面,讨论了尖峰岭山地雨林在世界雨林中的地位。气候学分析表明,尖峰岭山地雨林在温度带上属于亚热带/暖温带范围,但由于其丰沛的降水量,使物种多样性较为丰富,具备了雨林的特点。对科属组成的分析表明,亚热带/暖温带科属占优势,其中典型的亚热带/暖温带科——壳斗科和樟科占总重要值的34%以上,而热带科属成份较少。与世界其他地区的典型热带林相比较,尖峰岭山地雨林的物种丰富度显著偏低,但高于某些降水量少的地区的热带林。因此,我们认为尖峰岭山地雨林雨典型热带雨林有较大差别,具有由热带雨林向亚热带/暖温带雨林过渡的性质。此外,文本提出了平均种群密度(MPD)和种数-个体数关系这两种反映物种多样性测度的指标和表达式,并利用样地资料进行了分析。

Mt. Jianfengling, located in southwestern Hainan Island, is one of few areas in China where there exist wellprotected primary forest types resembling tropical rainforest. An 1 hm2 of permanent plot was established in a mountain rainforest and all trees with DBH≥5.0 cm were measured to study community structures and species richness of the forest type. A total of 171 species belonging to 93 genera and 52 families were identified, and a total of 1099 individuals were recorded, of which 1024 were trees. Diversity indices measured as ShannonWiener index (H′), evenness index (E) and Simpson index (D) were 4.11, 0.80 and 0.97 respectively. These indicies varied with sample size and initial DBH of measured individuals. H′, E and D clearly increased with increasing sample size, but exhibited no obvious pattern above 4000 m2 for H′ or 2000 m2 for E and D. As the initial DBH increased, numbers of species and families, as well as H′ and D decreased sharply, while E increased. DBH class frequency distribution revealed that number of individuals decreased with increasing DBH classes following an exponential function, and that community structure could be separated into four strata along an elevation gradient, with individuals distributed uniformly or randomly in each layer. The orientation of mountain rainforest of Jianfengling in the world rainforests is discussed from three aspects of climatology, family and genus composition, and comparison of species richness between rainforests of Jianfengling and other tropical regions. Climatological analysis indicated that the mountain rainforest of Jianfengling thermally corresponds to subtropical/warmtemperate zones and to arid/humid ranges of perhumid climate (rainforest climate). Floristically, subtropical/warm-temperate elements dominated, especially Fagaceae and Lauraceae (together accounting for more than 34% of the total importance value), while tropical elements were subordinate. Compared with the world tropical forests, species richness in the mountain rainforest in Jianfengling was lower than typical tropical rainforests but somewhat higher than tropical forests with low rainfall. Thus, the mountain rainforest of Jianfengling is much different with typical tropical rainforest and is a transitional forest type from tropical to subtropical/warmtemperate rainforests. In addition, two measures of species richness, mean population density (MPD) and number of speciesnumber of individuals relationship, are proposed and mathematically defined.

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