生物多样性 ›› 2004, Vol. 12 ›› Issue (1): 10-19.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2004003

所属专题: 探索中国山地植物多样性的分布规律

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

试论山地的生态特征及山地生态学的研究内容

方精云,沈泽昊,崔海亭   

  1. (北京大学环境学院生态学系,北京大学生态学研究与教育中心,北京大学地表过程分析与模拟教育部重点实验室,北京 100871)
  • 收稿日期:2003-06-12 修回日期:2003-09-10 出版日期:2004-01-20 发布日期:2004-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 方精云

Ecological characteristics of mountains and research issues of mountain ecology

FANG Jing-Yun, SHEN Ze-Hao, CUI Hai-Ting   

  1. Department of Ecology,College of Environmental Sciences,Center for Ecological Research & Education,and Key Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes of the Ministry of Education,Peking University,Beijing 100871
  • Received:2003-06-12 Revised:2003-09-10 Online:2004-01-20 Published:2004-01-20
  • Contact: FANG Jing-Yun

摘要: 山地是一个生态复杂系统,它具有特定的结构和功能,拥有丰富的生物多样性资源、水资源、矿产资源和旅游资源。开展山地生态学研究对阐明山地系统的结构与功能、山地的生态现象与过程,以及合理开发利用和保护山地资源都有极为重要的意义。本文在简要分析山地地形的主要要素对生态因子影响的基础上,对山地的生态效应进行了归纳,探讨了山地生态学应包含的主要研究内容。作者认为,在山区,地形地貌是形成山地结构和功能以及各种生态现象和过程的最根本因素,它通过改变地表的光、热、水、土、肥等生态因子而发生作用。因此,山地生态学应把地形地貌与各种生态现象和过程的相互作用作为其核心的研究内容。作者提出,山地生态学研究主要包括: 山地生态复杂性与生物多样性、山地气候变化、山地生态工程、山区可持续发展综合研究以及山地生态学研究技术与方法论等内容。

Abstract: Mountains are complex ecological systems, with unique structures and functions, and have rich biodiversity, water and mineral resources, and opportunities for tourism. Mountain ecology is the study of mountain structures, functions, and processes, as well as the exploration, sustainable utilization and conservation of mountain resources. In this paper, we review the effects of major topographic elements on ecological factors, summarize the ecological benefits of mountains, and discuss the current research issues and topics for Mountain Ecology. It is emphasized that in topography of mountainous areas is the most critical controlling factor for ecological structures, functions, and processes. Topography affects the abundance and distribution of organisms by modifying solar radiation, heat, moisture, soil and fertility. For this reason, topography and topographyinduced ecological phenomena and processes are considered to be the most critical topics in mountain ecology. Topographic research addresses such issues as ecological complexity, biodiversity, mountain climate changes, mountain ecological engineering, mountain sustainable development, and quantification of topographic elements (elevation, slope, aspect, and location). Among these, developing appropriate methods for quantifying topographic elements is a key technique. We also suggest a need for a synthetic study of relationships between humans and the natural world based mountain sustainable development.