生物多样性 ›› 2002, Vol. 10 ›› Issue (2): 156-162.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2002019

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

宁夏沙坡头国家级自然保护区动物资源的消长

刘迺发,黄族豪,吴洪斌,刘荣国,郝耀明   

  1. 1 (兰州大学生命科学学院,兰州 730000)
    2 (宁夏沙坡头国家级自然保护区管理所,中卫 751700)
  • 收稿日期:2001-04-23 修回日期:2001-09-20 出版日期:2002-05-20 发布日期:2002-05-20

Growth and decline of animal resource in Shapotou National Nature Reserve, Ningxia

LIU Nai-Fa, HUANG Zu-Hao, WU Hong-Bin, LIU Rong-Guo, HAO Yao-Ming   

  1. College of Life Sciences,Lanzhou University,Lanzhou 730000
    Ningxia Shapotou Nationgal Nature Reserve,Zhongwei,Ningxia 751700
  • Received:2001-04-23 Revised:2001-09-20 Online:2002-05-20 Published:2002-05-20

摘要: 1986~1987年首次全面调查了宁夏沙坡头自然保护区的动物种类及其数量。为了解1986年以来保护区动物资源的消长变化及其原因,1998~1999年又4次调查了该地脊椎动物种类及数量。10多年来沙坡头自然保护区的动物资源变化明显。1999年国家重点保护动物比1986年增加7种,已达19种,其中国家I类保护种类3种,II类保护种类16种。鸟类增加35种,其中宁夏新记录11种;兽类新增3种;两栖类和爬行类各减少2种;鼠类减少3种。1999年与1986年相比,湿地景观水鸟种类和数量显著增加,村庄农田景观、荒漠景观和固沙林景观鸟类种类和数量减少。环境指示种类纵纹腹小鸮(Athene noctua)、黑顶麻雀(Passer ammodendri)、树麻雀(Passer montanus)、凤头百灵(Galerida cristata)、大杜鹃(Cuculus canorus)、山斑鸠(Streptopelia orientalis)等种群数量明显减少。鼠类不但种类减少,数量也明显下降。影响动物种类、数量发生变化的主要因素是由于病虫害、人类对土地开发利用和生产活动引起的防风固沙林面积减少;地下水位下降;水环境污染严重,水质变坏和富营养化;草甸、草原覆盖度下降,草场退化;农田和鱼塘面积扩大。

Abstract: The Shapotou National Nature Reserve, situated on the southeastern edge of the Tenggeli Desert, is a nature reserve for desert and semi-desert eco systems. Animal species and their abundances in the reserve were investigated during 1986~1987. In order to know the growth and decline of animal resource in the reserve since 1986, we investigated animal species, their amount and environmentalconditions during 1998~1999.Nineteen protected animal were recorded in 1998~1999, among which three species are class I protected species and the others belong to class II protected species. In comparison with 1986~1987, the species protected by law in China increased by seven species. Thirty-five additional species of birds wererecorded, among which eleven species were new records for Ningxia. Three additional species of mammals were recorded, but three species of rodent were not re-encountered in the second survey. Two species of amphibian and reptiles also were not re-encountered. Comparing animal abundances between 1986~1987 and 1998~1999, bird numbers in wetland habitat increased significantly, but those in village farmland, desert and sand-stabilization forest decreased. Specifically, the amount of bird as environmental indicator, such as Athene noctua, Passer ammodendri, Passer montanus, Galerida cristata, Cuculus canorus, and Streptopelia orientalis, were significantly reduced. Not only did rodent species richness decrease, but numbers also declined markedly.The main factors which led to the growth and decline of animal species and their amount in Shapotou National Nature Reserve were: (1) the destruction of sand-stabilization forest ruined through economic action of human beings and plant diseases; (2) falling groundwater level, serious wetland pollution and the addition of abundant nutrients to water; (3) degradation of meadow and grassland; (4) enlargement of the area of farms and ponds.