生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (7): 749-757.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019081

• 生物多样性相关传统知识专题 • 上一篇    下一篇

滇西北藏区自然圣境与传统文化驱动下的生物多样性保护

杨立新1,2,裴盛基1,2,*(),张宇1,3   

  1. 1 中国科学院昆明植物研究所资源植物与生物技术重点实验室, 昆明 650201
    2 云南省生物多样性和传统知识研究会, 昆明 650034
    3 中国科学院东南亚生物多样性研究中心, 缅甸内比都 999091
  • 收稿日期:2019-03-15 接受日期:2019-05-20 出版日期:2019-07-20 发布日期:2019-08-21
  • 通讯作者: 裴盛基
  • 基金资助:
    云南省生物多样性保护专项基金(2014-2015)(Y430131261)

Action research on Tibetan sacred nature sites (SNS) conservation in Tibetan community in NW Yunnan

Yang Lixin1,2,Pei Shengji1,2,*(),Zhang Yu1,3   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Resource Plants and Biotechnology, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201
    2 Center for Biodiversity and Indigenous Knowledge, Kunming 650034
    3 Southeast Asia Biodiversity Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Naypyitaw, Burma 999091
  • Received:2019-03-15 Accepted:2019-05-20 Online:2019-07-20 Published:2019-08-21
  • Contact: Pei Shengji

摘要:

本研究旨在将滇西北藏区传统生态文化应用于社区生物多样性保护之中, 以推动社区参与式生物多样性保护和森林生态系统的修复。应用民族植物学和民族生态学的方法, 调查了位于白马雪山国家级自然保护区及周边地区的3个藏族村寨(巴珠、柯功、追达)的自然圣境与生物多样性分布状况及其生态服务功能等, 应用SWOT分析法和社区参与式保护途径, 开展了生物多样性保护示范活动。本研究结果表明, 社区保护生物多样性的主要驱动力来源于民族传统文化, 社区生计依赖于生物多样性, 保护自然圣境是社区水平保护生物与文化多样性及社区发展的重要途径。藏族自然圣境是基于传统信仰文化并经过长期实践建立和发展起来的有利于生物多样性保护的社区保护形式, 藏民社区长期遵从和实践自然圣境对生物多样性保护做出了重要贡献。

关键词: 藏区, 自然圣境, 社区保护与示范

Abstract:

The Tibetan sacred nature sites (SNS) encompass culturally significant, ritually protected sites in the Baima National Nature Reserve. Animistic and Tibetan Buddhist custodians of these sites have used traditional knowledge to conserve these sites for generations. Here, we assess how the Tibetan traditional eco-conservation culture conserves biodiversity, promotes community-based conservation, and restores forest ecosystems using methods of applied ethnobotany and ethnoecology. In particular, we applied strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analyses and community participatory approaches in three Tibetan SNS: Bazhu, Kegong, and Zhuida in Baima National Nature Reserve and its surrounding area in Shangrila County of Deqin Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan Province.Our results show that the driving force for community conservation of biodiversity comes from the established, traditional cultures and the dependence of community livelihoods on biodiversity. We conclude that community conservation on Sacred Nature Sites is an important way to protect biological and cultural diversity, as well as livelihood development at the community level. The Tibetan community's long-term compliance with, and practice of, SNS conservation has been a significant contribution to biodiversity conservation throughout the region.

Key words: Tibetan, action research, community-based conservation