生物多样性 ›› 2004, Vol. 12 ›› Issue (1): 89-98.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2004011

所属专题: 探索中国山地植物多样性的分布规律

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

贡嘎山东坡植物区系的垂直分布格局

沈泽昊1,刘增力1,伍杰2   

  1. 1 (北京大学环境学院生态学系,北京大学生态学研究与教育中心,北京大学地表过程分析与模拟教育部重点实验室,北京 100871)
    2 (四川省甘孜自治州林业科技研究所,姑咱 626001)
  • 收稿日期:2003-06-12 修回日期:2003-09-10 出版日期:2004-01-20 发布日期:2004-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 沈泽昊

Altitudinal pattern of flora on the eastern slope of Mt. Gongga

SHEN Ze-Hao1,LIU Zeng-Li1,WU Jie2   

  1. 1 Department of Ecology,College of Environmental Sicences,Center for Ecological Research & Education,and Key Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes of the Ministry of Education,Peking University,Beijing 100871
    2 Insitute of Forestry Sciences of Ganzi Autonomous Prefecture of Sichuan Province,Guan 626001
  • Received:2003-06-12 Revised:2003-09-10 Online:2004-01-20 Published:2004-01-20
  • Contact: SHEN Ze-Hao

摘要: 为了探讨贡嘎山植物区系的垂直分化特征及其与周边地区植物区系的联系,结合样带法与样方法,对贡嘎山东坡垂直植被带进行了调查,统计得出各垂直植被带的科、属的物种数量,分析了科、属、种级区系成分的构成及其沿海拔梯度的分布格局,并对各垂直植被带区系的相似性进行了聚类分析。结果表明: 1)贡嘎山植物区系在整体上具有温带性质,但在干旱河谷地带,热带和温带区系成分的比例相当。热带成分的构成和分布反映古热带和古地中海区系的残遗性影响; 2)东亚(含亚型)和东亚-北美成分对贡嘎山中部森林植物区系的影响最大,这些成分以温带古老性质为主; 3)北温带成分是贡嘎山植物区系的主体之一,对青藏高原隆升以来贡嘎山植物区系进化类群和特有成分的发展有主要贡献,代表区系的年轻组分; 4)中国特有种类型多样,占不同垂直植被带物种数量的40%-65%,其比例随海拔上升而增大。各类型比例的垂直变化突出反映了贡嘎山及横断山脉中海拔地段的植物区系与华中地区的联系,以及高海拔地段与青藏高原及东喜马拉雅的区系之间的联系。本文还就贡嘎山在生物地理分布上的意义以及贡嘎山和横断山脉植物区系特有性的性质进行了讨论。

Abstract: To explore the altitudinal differentiation of flora of Mt. Gongga and its relationship with those of surrounding areas, we investigated eight vertical vegetation zones on the eastern slope of Mt. Gongga, and analyzed the altitudinal distribution, the floristic components at the level of family, genus and species, and the contrast between different vegetation zones. Major results are as follows: (1) temperate flora primarily dominates the vegetation along the altitudinal gradient, but tropical and temperate components are equally abundant at the arid valley bottom area. The composition and altitudinal distribution of the tropical elements indicate the remnant effects of the Paleotropical and PaleoMediterranean flora; (2) East Asia and East Asia-North America arealtypes have the greatest influence on the forest flora in the middle part of Mt. Gongga, which are chiefly ancient temperate components; (3) North Temperate arealtype is the main body of the flora of Mt. Gongga, and comprises the bulk of the advanced and endemic components in the flora since the rise of the Tibet Plateau. It represents the young components of the flora, and (4) a wide range of Chinese endemic species comprise about 40%-65% of the flora of different vertical vegetation zones, increasing in dominance at higher elevations. At middle elevations, the flora of Mt. Gongga most closely relate to the flora of central China; at the alpine zone, the connection between Mt. Gongga and Tibet Plateau and East Himalayan Mountains takes precedence. The biogeographical significance of Gongga Mountain and the properties of the flora endemism at Mt. Gongga and Hengduan Mountain Range are discussed.