生物多样性 ›› 2004, Vol. 12 ›› Issue (1): 20-28.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2004004

所属专题: 探索中国山地植物多样性的分布规律

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

植物物种多样性的垂直分布格局

唐志尧,方精云   

  1. (北京大学环境学院生态学系,北京大学生态学研究与教育中心,北京大学地表过程分析与模拟教育部重点实验室,北京 100871)
  • 收稿日期:2003-06-12 修回日期:2003-09-10 出版日期:2004-01-20 发布日期:2004-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 唐志尧

A review on the elevational patterns of plant species diversity

TANG Zhi-Yao,FANG Jing-Yun   

  1. Department of Ecology,College of Environmental Sicences,Center for Ecological Research & Education,and Key Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes of the Ministry of Education,Peking University,Beijing 100871
  • Received:2003-06-12 Revised:2003-09-10 Online:2004-01-20 Published:2004-01-20
  • Contact: TANG Zhi-Yao

摘要: 生物多样性沿环境梯度的变化趋势是生物多样性研究的一个重要议题,而海拔梯度包含了多种环境因子的梯度效应,因此研究生物多样性的海拔梯度格局对于揭示生物多样性的环境梯度变化规律具有重要意义。在不同的研究尺度,植物多样性沿海拔梯度具有不同的分布格局,而形成这种格局的因素有很大差异。本文从α多样性,β多样性和γ多样性三个尺度总结了植物物种多样性沿海拔梯度分布格局及其环境解释。α多样性沿海拔梯度的分布格局在不同生活型的物种之间差异很大,但对于木本植物来说,虽然也存在其他格局,但α多样性随海拔升高而降低是被广泛接受的一种格局。在一般情况下,β多样性随着海拔的升高而降低,并且对于不同生活型的物种,β多样性沿海拔梯度具有相似的分布格局。γ多样性沿海拔梯度具有两种分布格局: 偏峰分布格局和显著的负相关格局; 特有物种数往往随着海拔的升高而减少,而特有度则随着海拔的升高而增加。

Abstract: Patterns of biodiversity along environmental gradients is one of the basic issues in the biodiversity studies. The elevational gradient incorporates multiple resource gradients which vary continuously in different fashions. As patterns along environmental gradients are significantly scaledependent, we reviewed plant diversity patterns along the elevational gradient in different scales: α diversity, β diversity and γ diversity, as well the factors which maintain these patterns. At the local scale, there is no fixed elevational pattern for herb species richness. For woody plants, the monotonic decrease of species richness as elevation increases is thought to be a general pattern, yet other patterns exist. The decrease of β diversity with increasing elevation has been observed in different ecosystems. Species richness in different elevational bands exhibits two different patterns, monotonic decrease and humpshaped pattern along the elevational gradient.