生物多样性 ›› 2004, Vol. 12 ›› Issue (1): 190-199.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2004023

所属专题: 探索中国山地植物多样性的分布规律

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

西藏珠峰-卓奥友峰普士拉地区高山稀疏植被的群落特征及小地形的影响

方精云1,神崎护2,王襄平1,依田恭二2,孙世洲3,下田胜久2   

  1. 1 (北京大学环境学院生态学系,北京大学生态学研究与教育中心,北京大学地表过程分析与模拟教育部重点实验室,北京 100871)
    2 (日本大阪市立大学理学部生物学科,日本大阪 558)
    3 (中国科学院植物研究所,北京 100093)
  • 收稿日期:2003-06-12 修回日期:2003-09-10 出版日期:2004-01-20 发布日期:2004-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 方精云

Community structure of alpine sparse vegetation and effects of micro-topography in Pushila, Everest-Choyu region, Tibet, China

FANG Jing-Yun1, KANZAKI Mamoru2, WANG Xiang-Ping1, YODA Kyoji2, SUN Shi-Zhou3, SHIMOTA Katsuhiko2   

  1. 1 Department of Ecology,College of Environmental Sicences,Center for Ecological Research & Education,and Key Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes of the Ministry of Education,Peking University,Beijing 100871
    2 Department of Biology , Faculty of Science , Osaka City University , Sugimoto-cho , Osaka 558 ,Japan
    3 Institute of Botany , Chinese Academy of Sciences , Beijing 100093
  • Received:2003-06-12 Revised:2003-09-10 Online:2004-01-20 Published:2004-01-20
  • Contact: FANG Jing-Yun

摘要: 在西藏定日县珠穆朗玛峰-卓奥友峰附近的普士拉地区的一山坡上(海拔5176-5390 m),设置13个样方,进行群落调查、小地形测定和土壤剖面调查,分析该地区高寒植被的群落特征及其与小地形的关系。13个样方(面积25-200 m2不等)中,共记载物种80个(含变种和亚种),分别隶属于47个属。出现频度较高的种有高山嵩草(Kobresia pygmaea)、矮兔耳草(Lagotis humilis)、楔叶委陵菜(Potentilla cuneata)、华马先蒿(Pedicularis oederi var. sinensis)、高山委陵菜(Potentilla polyschista)、密生雪灵芝(Arenaria densissima)等; 含物种数较多的属有: 虎耳草属(Saxifraga)、风毛菊属(Saussurea)、嵩草属(Kobresia)、委陵菜属(Potentilla)、龙胆属(Gentiana)、葶苈属(Draba)等。随着海拔降低,物种和属的丰富度呈现出上升的趋势。在该地区,植被盖度能较好地指示生境条件。等级聚类的结果也支持了这一观点。随着植被盖度的增加,转换物种丰富度(TSR)和转换属丰富度(TGR)增加,而物种多样性指数(Shannon-Wiener指数)减小。利用物种矩阵以及海拔、坡度、坡向、土壤深度、植被盖度等环境变量进行CCA排序,结果分出4类生境类型,它们较好地反映了群落特征与地形的关系。

Abstract: A total of 13 plots were set along a transect from the altitude of 5176 m to 5390 m in Pushila, Everest-Choyu region, Tibet, to investigate community structure of alpine sparse vegetation and effects of micro-topography. A total of 80 higher plant species, belonging to 47 genera, were identified. The most prevalent species were Kobresia pygmaea, Lagotis humilis, Potentilla cuneata, Pedicularis oederi var. sinensis, Potentilla polyschista, and Arenaria densissima. Several genera were highly species rich, such as Saxifraga, Saussurea, Kobresia, Potentilla, Gentiana, and Draba. As altitude decreased, richness of both species and genera tended to increase. Vegetation coverage was found to be a good indicator for habitat conditions. Cluster analysis supported this finding. With increasing vegetation coverage, transformed species richness (TSR) and transformed genus richness (TGR) increased, while Shannon-Wiener index decreased. Four habitat types that reflected a good correlation between community structure and micro-topography were identified based on CCA analysis using species matrix and five variables (altitude, slope, aspect, soil depth, and vegetation coverage).