生物多样性 ›› 2004, Vol. 12 ›› Issue (1): 164-173.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2004020

所属专题: 探索中国山地植物多样性的分布规律

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

长白山北坡植物群落组成、结构及物种多样性的垂直分布

赵淑清1,方精云1,宗占江2,朱彪1,沈海花1   

  1. 1 (北京大学环境学院生态学系,北京大学生态学研究与教育中心,北京大学地表过程分析与模拟教育部重点实验室,北京 100871)
    2 (吉林省长白山国家级自然保护区管理局, 安图 133613)
  • 收稿日期:2003-06-12 修回日期:2003-09-10 出版日期:2004-01-20 发布日期:2004-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 赵淑清

Composition, structure and species diversity of plant communities along an altitudinal gradient on the northern slope of Mt. Changbai, Northeast China

ZHAO Shu-Qing1, FANG Jing-Yun1, ZONG Zhan-Jiang2, ZHU Biao1, SHEN Hai-Hua1   

  1. 1 Department of Ecology,College of Environmental Sicences,Center for Ecological Research & Education,and Key Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes of the Ministry of Education,Peking University,Beijing 100871
    2 Administrative Bureau of National Nature Reserve of Mt . Changbai , Jilin Province , Antu 133613
  • Received:2003-06-12 Revised:2003-09-10 Online:2004-01-20 Published:2004-01-20
  • Contact: ZHAO Shu-Qing

摘要: 通过沿海拔梯度的系统调查,运用TWINSPAN分类方法,划分出长白山北坡的主要植物群落类型,对这些群落的组成和结构进行了分析。利用物种丰富度、α多样性和β多样性等指标,研究了群落多样性随海拔梯度的变化趋势。结果表明,乔木层植物可分为4个群落类型:从低海拔到高海拔依次为红松(Pinus koraiensis)针阔混交林、红松针阔叶树种与云冷杉组成的过渡群落、云冷杉暗针叶林以及岳桦林(Betula ermanii)。乔木层优势种重要值的分析清楚地反映出长白山北坡植被垂直带谱的优势成分。径级频度分布的分析表明该区域主要群落的自我更新状况良好。植物物种多样性随海拔梯度的变化趋势为:随海拔升高,乔木层和灌木层的物种丰富度呈下降趋势,但草本层的变化趋势不明显; 乔木层和灌木层的α多样性 (Shannon-Wiener指数) 呈下降趋势,草本层则变化不明显;无论是木本层还是草本层的Pielou均匀度指数均没有明显的变化;乔木层、灌木层和草本层植物的β多样性 (Cody指数)均随着海拔的升高而下降。

Abstract: The patterns of biodiversity along altitudinal gradients are well-documented ecological phenomena. Community composition and structure are important factors affecting diversity patterns in plant communities. Furthermore, species diversity along altitudinal gradient differs in different layers at different scales. In this paper, we analyzed the composition and structure of communities on the northern slope of Mt. Changbai based on TWINSPAN classification. The patterns of plant diversity for tree, shrub and herb layers were described by indices of species richness, α diversity and β diversity. Four community groups characterized by different dominants in the tree layer were distinguished: (1) mixed coniferous and broadleaved forests (700 -1065 m a.s.l.) dominated by Pinus koraiensis, Tilia amurensis, Fraxinus mandschurica, and Acer mono, including secondary birch forest (1150 m a.s.l) dominated by Betula platyphylla, which developed from natural pine and deciduous forests due to disturbance; (2) transitional forests of mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest and sub-alpine coniferous forests (1100-1300 m a.s.l.); (3) sub-alpine coniferous forests (1300-1780 m a.s.l.) dominated by Picea jezoensis, Abies nephrolepi and Larix olgensis; and (4) alpine birch forests (1800-2000 m a.s.l.) dominated by Betula ermanii. Distribution of importance values of dominants explicitly indicated a vertical pattern of these four forest types. Frequency distribution of DBH classes suggested major forest types in Mt. Changbai were regenerating at a healthy pace. Species richness in the tree and shrub layers declined with altitude, while herb layer species richness showed no significant trend along the altitudinal gradient. With increasing altitude, α diversity, represented by the Shannon-Wiener index, decreased for both tree and shrub layers, with no clear trend for herb layer. Pielou evenness index in the three layers showed no noticeable change with increasing altitude. β diversity, indicated by the Cody index, declined with increasing altitude for all three layers.