生物多样性 ›› 2014, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (1): 72-79.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.13247

所属专题: 基因组和生物多样性

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调控进化与形态多样性

国春策*(), 张睿, 山红艳, 孔宏智   

  1. 中国科学院植物研究所系统与进化植物学国家重点实验室, 北京 100093
  • 收稿日期:2013-11-29 接受日期:2014-01-15 出版日期:2014-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 国春策 E-mail:chunceguo@ibcas.ac.cn
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金青年基金(31300196)和国家自然科学基金重点项目(30530090)

Effects of regulatory evolution on morphological diversity

Chunce Guo*(), Rui Zhang, Hongyan Shan, Hongzhi Kong   

  1. State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
  • Received:2013-11-29 Accepted:2014-01-15 Online:2014-01-20
  • Contact: Guo Chunce E-mail:chunceguo@ibcas.ac.cn

揭示导致生物体形态和结构多样性产生的原因和机制, 是进化生物学研究的重要内容。进化发育生物学的研究表明, 许多复杂的形态结构及其多样性, 都是通过对古老调控网络的修饰或改造来完成的。也就是说, 生物体形态和结构的多样化并不是像以前认为的是由基因编码区的变化造成的, 而更多的是取决于基因的调控进化。作为控制基因表达的关键组分, 基因调控区的顺式调控元件通过与特定反式作用因子结合, 精细调控基因表达的时、空和量。因此, 调控元件的获得、丢失、修饰或者改变都能引起基因表达模式的变化, 是形态和结构多样性产生的主要原因。本文结合近年来国际上在基因的调控进化方面所取得的进展, 总结了真核生物中基因调控的方式和特点, 阐述了调控进化的基本式样, 揭示了调控进化在生物进化(特别是形态和结构多样化)中的作用。

关键词: 调控元件, 多效基因, 遗传开关, 平行演化, 进化发育生物学

An important task in evolutionary biology is to understand the reason for and mechanisms of morphological diversification. Studies in evolutionary developmental biology have revealed that, rather than being invented repeatedly from scratch, many complex morphological structures have evolved by modification of ancient regulatory networks. In other words, morphological diversity is not always produced by changes in the protein-coding region of regulatory genes; rather, it largely depends on the evolution of gene regulation. As the main components of the regulatory regions of a gene, cis regulatory elements bind to specific trans factors and determine the precise expression of the gene in time, place and amount. As a result, gain, loss, change or modification of cis regulatory elements may lead to shifts in gene expression, which, in turn, generate morphological diversity. Here, by reviewing recent progress in this and related fields, we summarize the basic features of gene regulation in eukaryotes, elucidating its fundamental evolutionary pattern and revealing its importance in generating morphological diversity.

Key words: regulatory element, pleiotropic gene, genetic switches, parallel evolution, evo-devo

表1

由基因调控元件突变造成生物体形态改变的案例"

基因
Gene
基因产物的功能
Function of product
表型
Phenotype
类群
Taxon
参考文献
References
dll (distal-less) 转录因子
Transcription factor
翅膀上眼点的有无
Eyespot determination
七叶树蝴蝶
Buckeye butterfly
Carroll et al., 1994
e (ebony) 色素合成
Pigment synthesis
腹部的颜色式样
Color pattern of abdomen
果蝇
Fruitfly
Wittkopp et al., 2002a
EDA (ectodysplasin) 分泌型信号蛋白
Secreted signaling protein
侧骨板的数目
Number of lateral plates
棘鱼
Stickleback
Colosimo et al., 2005; Jones et al., 2012
Duffy 细胞表面受体
Cell surface receptor
红细胞的形状
Shape of red blood cell

Human
Tournamille et al., 1995
Optix 转录因子
Transcription factor
翅膀着色式样
Pattern of wing coloration
釉蛱蝶属
Heliconius
Dasmahapatra et al., 2012
pitx1 (paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 1) 转录因子
Transcription factor
腹鳍的式样
Skeletal patterning
棘鱼
Stickleback
Peichel et al., 2001; Cresko et al., 2004; Shapiro et al., 2004
sc (scute) 转录因子
Transcription factor
成体背部刚毛的式样
Bristle pattern on adult notum
果蝇
Fruitfly
Marcellini & Simpson, 2006
MPF2 转录因子
Transcription factor
花器官的形状
Shape of floral organ
毛酸浆
Physalis pubescens
He & Saedler, 2005
svb (shavenbaby) 转录因子
Transcription factor
幼虫体表刚毛的式样
Bristle pattern on larvae
果蝇
Fruitfly
Sucena et al., 2003; Frankel et al., 2012
tb1 (teosinte branched 1) 转录因子
Transcription factor
分枝结构
Branching structure
玉米
Maize
Clark et al., 2006
ubx (ultrabithorax) 转录因子
Transcription factor
成体腿部刚毛的式样
Bristle pattern on adult legs
果蝇
Fruitfly
Stern, 1998
wnt1 (wingless) 分泌型信号蛋白
Secreted signaling protein
体节分化式样
Segmentation
果蝇
Fruitfly
Pfeiffer et al., 2000
y (yellow) 色素合成
Pigment synthesis
表皮的颜色式样
Color pattern of cuticle
果蝇
Fruitfly
Gompel et al., 2005; Jeong et al., 2006; Prud’homme et al., 2006
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