生物多样性 ›› 2013, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (4): 481-487.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.07071

所属专题: 微生物多样性专辑

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环境抗生素抗性基因研究进展

苏建强, 黄福义, 朱永官*()   

  1. 中国科学院城市环境研究所城市环境与健康重点实验室, 福建厦门 361021
  • 收稿日期:2013-03-22 接受日期:2013-06-08 出版日期:2013-07-20
  • 通讯作者: 朱永官 E-mail:ygzhu@iue.ac.cn
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金国际(地区)合作与交流项目(21210008);国家国际科技合作专项(2011DFB91710)

Antibiotic resistance genes in the environment

Jianqiang Su, Fuyi Huang, Yongguan Zhu*()   

  1. Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen, Fujian 361021
  • Received:2013-03-22 Accepted:2013-06-08 Online:2013-07-20
  • Contact: Zhu Yongguan E-mail:ygzhu@iue.ac.cn

抗生素耐药性及其在全球范围内的传播已成为国际关注的热点。本文结合最新文献, 综述了抗生素抗性基因在环境中的来源、传播、分布以及新型抗性基因的发现等方面的研究进展。环境中抗生素抗性基因的来源主要是环境中细菌的内在抗性基因及随人或动物粪便排到体外的抗性细菌。功能宏基因组学技术的应用极大地丰富了人们对抗生素抗性组学的认知, 并已从环境中筛选到多种新型抗性基因。近年来, 由于抗生素在医疗以及养殖业中的大量使用, 增加了抗性基因在环境中的丰度和多样性, 加速了抗性基因在环境中的传播, 在多种环境介质(如养殖水域、污水处理厂、河流、沉积物和土壤等)均检测到多种高丰度的抗生素抗性基因。我们建议今后在以下方面开展深入研究: (1)抗性基因传播和扩散的机制; (2)新型抗性基因筛选和抗性机制; (3)抗生素和抗性基因环境风险评估体系等。

关键词: 抗生素, 抗性基因, 抗性组学, 高通量荧光定量PCR

Antibiotic resistance and its spread in bacteria are topics of great importance in global research. In this paper, we review recent progress in understanding sources, dissemination, distribution and discovery of novel antibiotics resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment. Bacteria exhibiting intrinsic resistance and antibiotic resistant bacteria in feces from humans and animals are the major sources of ARGs occurring in the environment. A variety of novel ARGs have been discovered using functional metagenomics. Recently, the long-term overuse of antibotics in drug therapy and animal husbandry has led to an increase in diversity and abundance of ARGs, causing the environmental dissemination of ARGs in aquatic water, sewage treatment plants, rivers, sediment and soil. Future research should focus on dissemination mechanisms of ARGs, the discovery of novel ARGs and their resistant mechanisms, and the establishment of environmental risk assessment systems for ARGs.

Key words: antibiotics, antibiotics resistance genes, antibiotic resistome, high-throughput quantitative PCR

图1

古老的万古霉素抗性基因。A、B: VanAA2结构。C、D: 古代和现代VanA单体结构的比较(D'Costa et al., 2011)。"

图2

抗生素抗性组包括所有的抗生素抗性基因(Wright, 2007)。包括在致病菌和抗生素产生菌体内的抗性基因、隐藏在细菌染色体上通常不表达或低表达的抗性基因以及具有较低抗性或和抗生素密切相关、有可能进化为抗性基因的抗性基因前体。"

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