生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (5): 606-620.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020135

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多学科视角下的野生动物消费需求和消费行为研究进展

梁智健1,2,胡佳贝1,2,胡思帆1,2,赵晶晶1,2,周凯文1,2,焦运波3,黄程1,2,何霞1,2,温嘉恩1,2,李立姝4,华方圆5,李添明1,2,6,*()   

  1. 1 中山大学生命科学学院, 广州 510275
    2 中山大学有害生物控制与资源利用国家重点实验室, 广州 510275
    3 中山大学法学院, 广州 510275
    4 野生生物保护学会, 北京 100012
    5 北京大学城市与环境学院生态研究中心, 北京 100871
    6 中山大学生态学院, 广州 510006
  • 收稿日期:2020-04-01 接受日期:2020-05-19 出版日期:2020-05-20 发布日期:2020-07-16
  • 通讯作者: 李添明
  • 基金资助:
    海外高层人才计划(41180944);海外高层人才计划(41180953);广东省财政厅局级人才项目(42150016);中山大学青年教师培育项目(20wkpy08);欧盟委员会项目(ENV/2018/403-527)

Understanding and changing wildlife consumption behavior from a multidisciplinary perspective

Zhijian Liang1,2,Jiabei Hu1,2,Sifan Hu1,2,Jingjing Zhao1,2,Kaiwen Zhou1,2,Yunbo Jiao3,Cheng Huang1,2,Xia He1,2,Anita Kar Yan Wan1,2,Lishu Li4,Fangyuan Hua5,Tien Ming Lee1,2,6,*()   

  1. 1 School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275
    2 State Key Laboratory of Biological Control, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275
    3 School of Law, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275
    4 Wildlife Conservation Society, Beijing 100012
    5 Institute of Ecology, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871
    6 School of Ecology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006
  • Received:2020-04-01 Accepted:2020-05-19 Online:2020-05-20 Published:2020-07-16
  • Contact: Tien Ming Lee

摘要:

全球持续扩张的野生动物消费需求和相关非法贸易是生物多样性保护的重要威胁之一。近期新冠肺炎疫情暴发, 野生动物贸易和食用的公共卫生安全风险也引起了社会各界的关注。本文从社会学、心理学、行为科学等多学科的视角分析和理解我国野生动物消费的需求动因, 提出科学的行为改变对策。从我国野生动物消费现状来看, 功能性、社会性和体验性等非生活必需性需求凸显, 并受复杂因素影响。基于对需求动因的理解, 运用合适的行为改变框架, 以及宣传教育、社会影响、法律规范和行为助推等多种行为改变方法, 通过科学系统的阶段和步骤, 可有效地影响和改变野生动物消费行为。行为改变对策的实施需在具体情境下加强合作, 重视多学科运用、多主体合作和多尺度考虑。

关键词: 野生动物非法贸易, 需求动因, 减少需求, 行为改变, 多学科合作

Abstract:

Escalating global demand for wildlife products and consequential illegal wildlife trade has become one of the major threats to biodiversity conservation. In the recent COVID-19 pandemic, growing public health risks of wildlife trade and consumption have triggered widespread public concern. In this review, we adopt a multidisciplinary perspective, including sociology, psychology, behavioral science and other disciplines, to understand the motivations for wildlife consumption in China, and to propose scientifically guided behavioral change countermeasures. The current state of wildlife consumption in China reveals certain functional, social, experiential and other non-essential needs of wildlife as major drivers of consumption, which are affected by a host of complex factors. Based on our understanding of the drivers of demand, we suggest using behavioral change frameworks, and a variety of behavioral change methods, including education, social influence, regulation and nudging, to effectively influence and change wildlife consumption behavior. For effective implementation of behavioral change strategies, collaboration needs to be strengthened, both among and across diverse disciplines, actors and scales of interest.

Key words: illegal wildlife trade, drivers of demand, demand reduction, behavioral change, multidisciplinary collaboration