生物多样性 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (9): 1004-1008.doi: 10.17520/biods.2016222

所属专题: 物种概念专题

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“整合物种概念”和“分化路上的物种”

刘建全*()   

  1. 四川大学生命科学学院生物资源与生态环境教育部重点实验室, 成都 610064
  • 出版日期:2016-09-20
  • 通讯作者: 刘建全 E-mail:liujq@nwipb.cas.cn
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(31590821)

“The integrative species concept” and “species on the speciation way”

Jianquan Liu*()   

  1. Key Laboratory for Bio-resources and Eco-environment of Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064
  • Online:2016-09-20
  • Contact: Liu Jianquan E-mail:liujq@nwipb.cas.cn

已有的各个物种概念对物种的认识类似盲人摸象, 只包含了物种的某一个方面; 而一个分化后期的成熟物种应涵盖了所有的物种概念。但是, 尚未到达分化后期的物种往往又已开始新一轮的物种分化; 自然中存在的多数“物种”处于分化路上。这种循环往复连续分化产生的物种, 存在种间生殖隔离不彻底、基因流频繁发生、网状进化突出等现象。此外, 对于不同的物种对, 最早开始分化的基因以及不同物种概念所要求的条件的分化顺序不是统一的, 而是随机的。定义一个适合所有“分化路上的物种”概念存在较大困难。但是, 应采用尽可能多的物种概念来界定分化路上的物种、发表新种和进行分类处理; 也应承认种间可能广泛存在不完全的生殖隔离和有限的基因流, 即有不属于两个物种群体的杂交或回交个体的存在。这样划分的物种比只依据一个物种概念认定的物种具有更高的客观性和科学性。

关键词: 整合物种概念, 物种分化路上, 随机分化, 物种界定

One of the diverse species concepts defined before may only perceive one aspect of the mature species like “the blind men feel the elephant” while the mature species at the final speciation stage should have integrated all species concepts. Most “species” in the nature are on the way to the final speciation stage. However, before reaching the final speciation stage, these species undertake further cycles of speciation. Species from the repeated splits of the incomplete divergences show incomplete reproductive isolations, frequent interspecific gene flow and reticulate evolutions. In addition, the earliest divergent gene differs between different pairs of species. Therefore, the divergence orders for different species concepts vary greatly between organisms. Such random divergences lead to the extreme difficulty to define a common and accurate species concept for all “species” on the speciation way. It is better to delimitate species, publish new species and conduct taxonomic revisions based on conditions and approaches of as many species concepts as possible. In addition, incomplete reproductive isolations, limited interspecific gene flow and some ‘abnormal’ individuals not ascribed to any species due to interspecific hybridizations and within-population mutations should be widely acknowledged during species delimitations. Such circumscribed species may be more objective and scientific than previously delimitated based only on one single species concept.

Key words: integrative species concept, on the speciation way, random divergence, species delimitation

图1

以前定义的每个物种概念就像盲人摸象一样, 只看到了一个成熟物种的某一方面"

图2

在1个祖先种分化为2至3个(辐射多样化)物种过程中, 满足不同物种概念(不同颜色)条件分化的非一致性。未达到物种分化的最后期, 如箭头所示又开始一轮新的物种分化。由于不完全的生殖隔离, 这些物种之间的基因流与遗传交换应十分频繁。"

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