生物多样性 ›› 2015, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (5): 695-703.doi: 10.17520/biods.2015104

• • 上一篇    

我国自然保护区资金机制改革创新的几点思考

沈兴兴*(), 马忠玉, 曾贤刚   

  1. 中国人民大学环境学院, 北京 100872
  • 收稿日期:2015-04-28 接受日期:2015-06-29 出版日期:2015-09-20
  • 通讯作者: 沈兴兴 E-mail:xingxinghenry@126.com
  • 基金项目:
    国家社会科学研究基金重大项目“生态产品的供给机制与制度创新研究”(13&ZD045)

Reflections on innovative funding mechanisms for nature reserves in China

Xingxing Shen*(), Zhongyu Ma, Xiangang Zeng   

  1. School of Environment and Natural Resources, Renmin University, Beijing 100872
  • Received:2015-04-28 Accepted:2015-06-29 Online:2015-09-20
  • Contact: Shen Xingxing E-mail:xingxinghenry@126.com

目前国际上自然保护地的资金投入规模远远低于实际需求, 未来融资机制需要创新, 包括吸引和利用外部资金、鼓励自行经营创收、基于保护地产品或服务的市场交易收费等, 其中鼓励创收主要指的是财政手段(例如生态税)、收益共享机制、管理成本共担机制、金融交易(例如碳排放交易)等。政治领域的制度规范、经济领域的市场、价格政策等都会影响保护地的融资机制, 保护地未来的融资机制将更多地依赖于财政、金融、市场、贸易相互结合的多元化融资手段。我国自然保护区目前存在资金来源结构不合理、资金规模太小, 支出结构不合理、缺乏周边社区补偿和收益共享机制等问题。为此, 作者提出以下建议: (1)确保中央财政承担国家级自然保护区的主要管理经费; (2)在充分发挥生态旅游服务付费、资源使用付费等传统产品(服务)收费型融资手段的基础上, 建立和完善生态系统服务付费、森林碳汇交易和保护区绿色产品认证等新的市场交易型融资渠道; (3)利用境外资金提升我国自然保护区的能力建设; (4)积极争取国内不同社会团体的资金支持, 条件允许的保护区可通过多方联合治理模式建立管理成本共担机制以及与周边社区的收益共享机制。(5)在资金使用方面, 在保障保护区工作人员基本薪酬福利的前提下, 将剩余资金包括经营收入优先用于核心保护业务的投资上, 同时加强资金的监管。

关键词: 融资机制, 融资渠道, 资金的使用和分配

The funding scale invested in protected areas is far lower than funding needed. Innovative financing mechanisms in the future will involve seeking external funds, self generating and retaining revenues, and charging fee systems based on products or service markets. Generating revenue refers to fiscal approaches like ecological taxes, benefits and cost sharing mechanisms, and financial trades like carbon trading, etc. The political institutions and regulations as well as market or price policies both affect the financing mechanisms of protected areas. In the future, the financing mechanisms for protected area will depend on diversified financing channels covering fiscal, finance, market and trade tools. The concept of sustainable financing for protected areas mainly refers to the capacities of obtaining abundant, stable and long-term financial resources as well as allocating these financial resources in a timely and appropriate manner, so as to cover the full cost and achieve conservation objectives for protected areas. The major problems of the current funding mechanism and expenditure status of Chinese nature reserves include the unreasonable structure of funding sources and funds expenditure, low levels of funding amounts, as well as the lack of compensation and benefit sharing with the local community. This paper suggests ensuring federal fiscal sources as the dominant funding source for national nature reserves and establishing or improving the new market and trading channels such as PES (Payment for Ecosystem Service), carbon trade and green product certification (based on the traditional charging system including payment for eco-tourism services and resources using fees). In addition, we suggest using overseas funds as much as possible to promote capacity building of Chinese nature reserves and trying to raise funds from different domestic societies. Moreover, multi-stakeholders shared governance could be piloted in some nature reserves to achieve cost sharing among key stakeholders and benefit sharing mechanisms between local communities and the nature reserves. The authors also suggest that the majority of funds should be spent on conservation investments after the necessary staff salary deduction.

Key words: financing mechanism, financing sources, funds using and allocation

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