生物多样性 ›› 2004, Vol. 12 ›› Issue (3): 339-347.doi: 10.17520/biods.2004041

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

广东古兜山自然保护区蕨类植物多样性对植被不同演替阶段的生态响应

严岳鸿, 易绮斐, 黄忠良, 邢福武*   

  1. (中国科学院华南植物研究所,广州 510650)
  • 收稿日期:2003-10-15 修回日期:2004-02-28 出版日期:2004-05-20
  • 通讯作者: 邢福武

The ecological response of fern diversity to vegetation succession in Gudoushan Nature Reserve, Guangdong

YAN Yue-Hong, YI Qi-Fei, HUANG Zhong-Liang, XING Fu-Wu*   

  1. South China Institute of Botany,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Guangzhou 510650
  • Received:2003-10-15 Revised:2004-02-28 Online:2004-05-20
  • Contact: XING Fu-Wu

'蕨类植物是最早登陆的维管植物,至今仍然是生态系统初级生产力的重要组成部分。它们一方面可以通过改造生态环境影响森林群落发生和发展的过程,另一方面由于它们对生态因子变化的敏感性,其组成的多样性及其对环境的适应组合也随着森林群落发生和发展而不断变化。为了解蕨类植物在群落演替的各个阶段的种类组成、物种多样性格局演变规律及其适应方式的选择,本文选择广东古兜山自然保护区中的草丛、灌丛、次生常绿阔叶林和地带性南亚热带季风常绿阔叶林(以下相对简称“原生林”)等4个处于不同演替阶段的植被类型中的蕨类植物群落进行研究。每一植被类型中选取4个5 m×5 m代表性小样方进行取样调查,对其主要数量特征、群落的α多样性、β多样性、不同群落间的相似性系数和蕨类植物的种类性质进行了分析。结果表明:随着群落演替的进展,草丛、灌丛、次生林和原生林各阶段植被中:(1)群落之间的β多样性指数逐渐增大,而相似性指数依次降低;(2)蕨类植物的物种丰富度依次增大,而群落的多样性指数、生态优势度和均匀度并不伴随着群落的丰富度呈明显的规律性变化;(3)具革质叶的蕨类、阳生蕨类和进行无性繁殖的蕨类植物在各阶段所占的比例和重要值比重逐渐减少,而具草质叶的蕨类、阴生蕨类和进行有性繁殖的蕨类植物则逐渐增多,原生林中还出现了具膜质叶的蕨类。以上结果显示蕨类植物的物种组成及其适应环境的能力对不同植被环境具有比较显著的指示作用;在植被保护和植被恢复的实践中,森林乔木树种与林下蕨类植物之间的相生相克作用是值得关注的。

Ferns were the first terricolous vascular plants, and still comprise an important part of primary productivity of ecosystems. On the one hand, they make a great contribution to the processes of dynamics and development of the forest community; on the other hand, because of their sensitivity to change in ecological factors, the composition of the fern community and its adaptations change with the development of forest community. In order to understand the changes of composition and the adaptability of ferns in the process of vegetation succession, a survey on a successional series of vegetation was carried out in Gudoushan Nature Reserve, 112°52′30″-113°03′25″E and 22°5′00″-22°21′15″N, which is located in the southcentral area of Guangdong Province, China. Four quadrats of 100 m2 each (4×5 m×5 m) were located in grassland, shrub, secondary forest dominated by heliophytic trees, and typical southern subtropical monsoon evergreen broadleaf forest (hereafter abbreviated as “primary forest”) dominated by shadeadapted trees. The importance value (IV) of each fern species and the index of α and β-diversity of communities in the process of vegetational succession were calculated. Changes in leaf characteristics, shade tolerance and reproductive strategy of ferns in the course of vegetation succession were analyzed. The results showed that, with the development of communities from grassland to shrub, to secondary forest and to primary forest, (1) the index of β-diversity among different fern communities increased, but the index of similarity among different communities decreased; (2) species richness increased, but the ShannonWeiner index, Simpson index and index of evenness did not increase with the change in richness; (3) proportion of ferns with leathery leaves decreased gradually, but the proportion of ferns with herbaceous leaves increased, and ferns with membranous leaves appeared in the last stages; (4) the proportion of shadetolerant ferns increased gradually, and suntolerant ferns decreased; (5) the proportion of ferns with sexual reproduction increased gradually, while the ferns with asexual reproduction decreased. The results also indicate that the ferns and their adaptation to the environment are useful indexes that reflect the change of the environment in different vegetational stages. More attention should be paid to the interaction between ferns and trees in the practice of restoration and conservation of biodiversity.

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