生物多样性 ›› 2004, Vol. 12 ›› Issue (1): 146-154.doi: 10.17520/biods.2004018

所属专题: 探索中国山地植物多样性的分布规律

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

河北小五台山主要植被类型的分布与地形的关系:基于遥感信息的分析

刘增力*, 郑成洋, 方精云   

  1. (北京大学环境学院生态学系,北京大学生态学研究与教育中心,北京大学地表过程分析与模拟教育部重点实验室,北京 100871)
  • 收稿日期:2003-06-12 修回日期:2003-09-10 出版日期:2004-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 刘增力

Relationship between the vegetation type and topography in Mt. Xiaowutai, Hebei Province: a remote sensing analysis

LIU Zeng-Li*, ZHENG Cheng-Yang, FANG Jing-Yun   

  1. Department of Ecology,College of Environmental Sicences,Center for Ecological Research & Education,and Key Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes of the Ministry of Education,Peking University,Beijing 100871
  • Received:2003-06-12 Revised:2003-09-10 Online:2004-01-20
  • Contact: LIU Zeng-Li

小五台山是河北省最高峰,具有较完整的暖温带植被垂直带谱。本文通过野外群落植被调查,结合由TM遥感影像解译1:50 000地形图制作的DEM数据而得到的植被图,分析了小五台山主要植被群落的分布状况及其与地形的关系。结果表明,小五台山从低海拔到高海拔,依次出现灌丛、阔叶林、针阔混交林、暗针叶林、矮林、灌丛、草甸等植被类型。森林景观的面积最大,占总面积的60.7%;平均斑块面积最大的是阔叶林和亚高山草甸,斑块破碎化最严重的是水体和针阔混交林。不同的植被类型在不同的地形条件下分布特点不同,林地在北坡所占面积比例(占总面积的75%)远大于南坡(46%),说明水分条件是小五台山森林分布的限制因子之一; 灌丛和草甸与林地相反。随海拔高度的变化,不同植被类型的分布面积比例发生变化,出现替代现象,形成植被垂直带谱。由于坡度的影响,增加了带谱内植被组成的复杂性。

Using data from a Digital Elevation Model (DEM), vegetation map derived from remote sensing, and field investigation, we analyzed the relationship between vegetation type and topography on Mt. Xiaowutai, Northern China. Covering 60.7% of the whole area, forests dominated the landscape. Broadleaf forests and subalpine meadows were the two components with largest average patch size, whereas water body and mixed forest had the smallest patch size. Vegetation composition varied in different topographic conditions. Occupying 75% of the northern and 46% of the southern slope, forest was more dominant on shady slopes than on sunny slopes, suggesting the controlling role of water availability in the distribution of forest on Mt. Xiaowutai. Composition of vegetation types changed along the altitudinal gradient, resulting in a distinct zonation of the vegetation types. Vegetation types varied from low to high elevations as follows: shrub, broadleaved deciduous forest, mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest, dark coniferous forest, krummholz, subalpine shrub and subalpine meadow. Slope increased the compositional complexity of vegetation types within each vegetation zone.

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