生物多样性 ›› 2004, Vol. 12 ›› Issue (1): 137-145.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2004017

所属专题: 探索中国山地植物多样性的分布规律

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

河北小五台山北坡植物物种多样性的垂直梯度变化

刘增力*,郑成洋,方精云   

  1. (北京大学环境学院生态学系,北京大学生态学研究与教育中心,北京大学地表过程分析与模拟教育部重点实验室,北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2003-06-12 修回日期:2003-09-10 出版日期:2004-01-20 发布日期:2004-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 刘增力

Changes in plant species diversity along an elevation gradient on Mt. Xiaowutai, Hebei, China

LIU Zeng-Li*, ZHENG Cheng-Yang, FANG Jing-Yun   

  1. Department of Ecology,College of Environmental Sicences,Center for Ecological Research & Education,and Key Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes of the Ministry of Education,Peking University,Beijing 100871
  • Received:2003-06-12 Revised:2003-09-10 Online:2004-01-20 Published:2004-01-20
  • Contact: LIU Zeng-Li

摘要: 通过野外群落调查,分析了小五台山北坡植物物种多样性的垂直梯度变化。结果表明 :(1)小五台山北坡的物种丰富度随海拔的升高逐渐减小,物种组成趋于简单,乔木树种渐少。α多样性指数变化较小,但呈现出随海拔升高先增大、后减小的趋势。(2)β多样性指数很好地反映了群落之间的变化。相异系数峰值出现在海拔1400-1500 m处灌丛向森林的过渡带和海拔2600-2700 m处森林向亚高山草甸的过渡带。海拔1400-1500 m处出现的Cody指数极大值反映了灌丛群落向森林群落的变化,而Cody指数在海拔2100-2200 m的极大值反映了阔叶林和针叶林之间的过渡。(3)作为小五台山两种最为重要的阔叶树种,白桦(Betula platyphylla)和红桦(Betula albo-sinensis)沿海拔梯度出现明显的替代现象,随着海拔的升高,白桦逐渐为红桦所取代。

Abstract: We analyzed patterns of plant species diversity along the northern slope of Mt. Xiaowutai based on 33 plots along an elevation gradient from 1250 m to 2850 m, at approximately 50 m intervals. Tree species richness decreased gradually with increasing elevation. However, α diversity index  distributed along the altitudinal gradient in a unimodal pattern, i.e., α diversity peaked at the middle elevation. Changes in β diversity corresponded with the transition of vegetation types, i.e., β diversity peaked at the ecotones between different vegetation types. Both the community dissimilarity index and Cody index peaked at 1400-1500 m, 2100-2200 m, and 2600-2700 m, corresponding to the transitional zones of shrubs to forests, broad forests to coniferous forests, and forests to subalpine meadows, respectively. Altitudinal replacement of congeneric species was apparent for the two most important broadleaf tree species, white birch (Betula platyphylla) and red birch (Betula albo-sinensis). At lower elevations, the deciduous broad-leaved forest was dominated by white birch, which was replaced by red birch at higher elevations.