生物多样性 ›› 2004, Vol. 12 ›› Issue (1): 131-136.doi: 10.17520/biods.2004016

所属专题: 探索中国山地植物多样性的分布规律

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

秦岭太白山4类森林土壤种子库的储量分布与物种多样性

张玲, 方精云   

  1. (北京大学环境学院生态学系,北京大学生态学研究与教育中心,北京大学地表过程分析与模拟教育部重点实验室,北京 100871)
  • 收稿日期:2003-06-12 修回日期:2003-09-10 出版日期:2004-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 张玲

Reserves and species diversity of soil seed banks in four types of forest on Mt. Taibai, Qinling Mountains

ZHANG Ling, FANG Jing-Yun   

  1. Department of Ecology,College of Environmental Sicences,Center for Ecological Research & Education,and Key Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes of the Ministry of Education,Peking University,Beijing 100871
  • Received:2003-06-12 Revised:2003-09-10 Online:2004-01-20
  • Contact: ZHANG Ling

种子是种子植物的繁殖体。了解种子生态学对于发展群落结构和功能的理论具有关键性作用。土壤种子库可以从另一个角度表现植被的潜在更新能力。本文通过野外植被调查和室内试验,从240份土样中,采用物理方法挑选土壤中的种子进行分类统计,研究了秦岭太白山南坡的锐齿槲栎(Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata)林、糙皮桦(Betula utilis)林、巴山冷杉(Abies fargesii)林、太白红杉(Larix potaninii var. chinensis)林4类森林的土壤种子库分布状况,了解土壤种子库储量分布以及物种多样性特点。主要研究结果如下: (1)4类森林中,糙皮桦林的土壤种子库总储量最大,为1.77×104 ind./m2; 太白红杉林的土壤种子库总储量最小,为1.742×103 ind./m2。种子的特性对于土壤种子库储量有较大的影响。(2)4类森林的土壤种子库储量在土层中的垂直分布为枯落物层>腐殖质层>心土层;锐齿槲栎林土壤种子库中物种种类最多,有50种;阔叶林中潜在的群落优势度为多个种群分配,而针叶林的种子库中优势种较少;巴山冷杉林种子库群落均匀度大于其他3种林地的。(3)土壤种子库的种子储量与种子密度的变化规律基本一致; 用种子密度来表示种子库的大小特征,考虑了土壤性质等对种子库的影响,比用种子储量来表示更能客观地反映土壤种子库的特点。

The soil seed bank represents the pool of potential species for a plant community. It plays a critical role in community succession and maintenance of the community structures and functions. We analyzed the distribution of soil seed banks and their characteristics in four forest types: Larix chinensis forest, Betula utilis forest, Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata forest, and Abies fargesii forest based on 240 samples collected on the southern slope of Mt. Taibai, Qinling Mountains, Central China. The results are summarized as follows: (1) the soil seed bank reserve of B. utilis forest was the largest one (1.7677×104 ind./m2), while L. chinensis forest the smallest (1.742×103 ind./m2). Seed characteristics influenced soil seed bank reserves. (2)  the seed bank of Q. aliena var. acuteserrata forest contained 50 species, which was the highest of the four forest types.  The seed reserves were highest in litter layer, followed by that in humus layer and subsurface soil layer. The seed banks of deciduous broad-leaved forests exhibited higher dominance and lower evenness than those of coniferous forests. The seed bank evenness index was highest in A. fargesii forest. (3) the reserves and density of seed banks showed similar patterns along the altitudinal gradient and in the four forest types. In this study, the soil samples were divided into three layers: litter layer, humus layer and subsurface soil layer. This sampling method improved on previous methods, which sampled soil at a fixed soil depth. Having taken the characteristics of soils into account, seed density was a better indicator of the soil seed bank characteristics than the seed reserve.

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