生物多样性 ›› 2004, Vol. 12 ›› Issue (1): 99-107.doi: 10.17520/biods.2004012

所属专题: 探索中国山地植物多样性的分布规律

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

神农架南坡植物群落多样性的海拔梯度格局

沈泽昊, 胡会峰, 周宇, 方精云   

  1. (北京大学环境学院生态学系,北京大学生态学研究与教育中心,北京大学地表过程分析与模拟教育部重点实验室,北京 100871)
  • 收稿日期:2003-06-10 修回日期:2003-09-10 出版日期:2004-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 沈泽昊

Altitudinal patterns of plant species diversity on the southern slope of Mt. Shennongjia, Hubei, China

SHEN Ze-Hao, HU Hui-Feng, ZHOU Yu, FANG Jing-Yun   

  1. Department of Ecology,College of Environmental Sicences,Center for Ecological Research & Education,and Key Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes of the Ministry of Education,Peking University,Beijing 100871
  • Received:2003-06-10 Revised:2003-09-10 Online:2004-01-20
  • Contact: SHEN Ze-Hao

神农架南坡在我国植被区划中具有十分重要的意义。在神农架南坡沿海拔梯度设置50个样方进行植物物种多样性调查,通过对样方的数量分类和DCA排序,结合物种丰富度、区系分化强度、区系成分和生活型神农架, 垂直, 植被带谱, 多样性, 区系成分, 生活型构成等方面的分析,研究神农架南坡植物物种多样性的垂直格局。结果表明: (1)神农架南坡的植被垂直带谱为: 海拔900-1000 m以下为常绿阔叶林; 1000-1700 m为常绿落叶阔叶混交林; 1600-2100 m为落叶阔叶林; 海拔2000-2400 m为针阔叶混交林; 海拔2300 m以上为暗针叶林。(2)植被基带群落中,在物种数量、区系成分和重要值方面,常绿和落叶阔叶树种所占的比例都相差无几。(3)植物多样性的垂直格局基本符合“单峰”模式。峰值出现在海拔1400-1500 m; 但混交林类型的多样性和区系分化强度较高。(4)在植物区系中,温带成分处于主导地位; 世界广布属的比例随海拔上升而增加; 而中国特有属仅见于海拔2000 m以下。亚热带成分和东亚区域性区系成分都随海拔上升而减少,峰值都位于山地常绿落叶阔叶混交林。(5)蕨类植物丰富度随海拔上升而减小; 草本植物丰富度与海拔高度之间没有呈现显著的相关关系; 木本植物丰富度总体沿海拔梯度减少,但峰椎处于常绿落叶阔叶林带。针阔混交林样方的平均木本物种数也超过落叶阔叶林带。

The southern slope of Mt. Shennongjia has long been viewed as an important boundary for China's vegetation regional division. In order to explore the altitudinal patterns of plant species diversity in this area, we sampled 50 plots along an altitudinal gradient on the southern slope. Species richness, intensity of flora differentiation, floristic composition and life forms were analyzed. Quantitative classification and DCA ordination were also applied to the sample plots. Major results were: (1) the vertical vegetation spectrum was evergreen broadleavee forest (below 900-1000 m a.s.l.), mixed deciduous and evergreen broadleaved forest (1000-1700 m), deciduous forest (1600-2100 m), mixed coniferous and deciduous forest (2000-2400 m), and subalpine coniferous forest (above 2300 m a.s.l.). (2) Evergreen and deciduous broadleaved tree species were almost equivalent in quantity and importance values in the basal vegetation zone. (3) The altitudinal pattern of plant species diversity showed a unimodal pattern, peaking at 1400-1500 m a.s.l. Mixed forest types have relatively higher α diversity and more intensive flora differentiation than the other types. (4) Temperate plants dominated the flora. With an increase of elevation, the number of cosmopolitan genera increased, while subtropical types and East Asian types decreased. Chinese endemic genera were limited to the area below 2000 m a.s.l. (5) Species richness of pteridophytes decreased with increasing elevation, while that of woody plants peaked in mixed evergreen and deciduous forest. Species richness of herbaceous did not correlate with elevation.

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