生物多样性 ›› 2003, Vol. 11 ›› Issue (5): 351-363.doi: 10.17520/biods.2003043

所属专题: 生物多样性与生态系统功能

• 论文 •    下一篇

生物多样性与生态系统功能:最新的进展与动向

张全国, 张大勇   

  1. (生物多样性与生态工程教育部重点实验室,北京师范大学生态学研究所,北京 100875)
  • 收稿日期:2003-07-23 修回日期:2003-08-28 出版日期:2003-09-20
  • 通讯作者: 张大勇

Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning: recent advances and trends

ZHANG Quan-Guo, ZHANG Da-Yong   

  1. Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering & Institute of Ecology,Beijing Normal University,Beijing 100875
  • Received:2003-07-23 Revised:2003-08-28 Online:2003-09-20
  • Contact: ZHANG Da-Yong

>生物多样性与生态系统功能的关系及其内在机制是当前生态学领域的重大科学问题。2002年以来人们不再过多地纠缠于“抽样-互补之争”,对这一世纪课题的认识又有了新的进展。(1)人们开始运用已有的知识揭示更大时间和空间尺度上的物种多样性-生态系统功能关系。多样性作用机制可能存在着动态变化——“抽样向互补转型”:群落建立初期,抽样效应是主要的多样性作用机制;随时间推移,生态位互补成为主要机制。理论研究则预测:局域尺度上生态系统功能与物种多样性呈现单峰曲线关系,在区域尺度上为单调上升关系;(2)非生物因素与多样性-生产力的交互关系吸引了许多实验研究。人们发现:物种多样性-生产力关系可能会受到资源供给率和环境扰动的修正,环境因素可能是多样性-生产力关系的幕后操纵者;(3)人们开始重视营养级相互作用对于多样性-生态系统功能关系的影响,生态位互补和抽样假说开始被扩展运用到消费者营养级上;(4)人们开始认真思考物种共存机制在多样性-生态系统功能关系的形成中所扮演的角色。理论模型研究表明,不同的物种共存机制会导致不同的多样性-生产力关系。

The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning has aroused considerable interest and controversy in recent ecological literature. From an explosion of recent experimental and theoretical research addressing this question, several key advances have emerged. (1) Long-term and large scale perspectives on the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning have been highlighted. A hypothetical transition from sampling to complementarity has been proposed based on the results of the largest and longest running experiments, the Cedar Creek Diversity Experiments. Their hypothesis suggests that the positive effect of diversity on ecosystem processes in experimental studies initially arises as a result of sampling. But a transition from sampling to complementarity occurs after a time lag. It can be predicted that niche complementarity is the long-term mechanism underlying the diversity-ecosystem functioning relationship, causing an over-yielding effect. (2) Some experimental studies were conducted to explore the interaction between abiotic factors and the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationship. The results indicate that resource availability and environmental disturbance may dominate and alter the relationship between species diversity and ecosystem productivity. It is suggested that the positive effects of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning in natural systems are likely masked by variation in environmental factors among habitats. (3) Several papers highlight the role of trophic interactions in the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. The general mechanisms explaining plant diversity effects on primary productivity, i.e. sampling and complementarity effects, have been extended to include consumer prey interactions. This leads to the prediction that a more diverse consumer assemblage should have stronger impacts on aggregate prey abundance than a depauperate one. (4) Theoretical studies highlight mechanisms of species coexistence as the key to understanding the relationship between diversity and ecosystem functioning. The varied diversity-productivity relationships from models with different species coexistence mechanisms imply that no general diversity productivity pattern exists, and that the nature of the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationship depends on species coexistence mechanisms.

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