生物多样性 ›› 2003, Vol. 11 ›› Issue (3): 223-230.doi: 10.17520/biods.2003029

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

水盾草在中国的分布特点和入侵途径

丁炳扬, 于明坚, 金孝锋, 俞建, 姜维梅, 董柯锋   

  1. 1 (浙江大学生命科学学院,杭州 310012)
    2 (浙江萧山中学,杭州 311200)
  • 收稿日期:2002-12-25 修回日期:2003-04-13 出版日期:2003-05-20
  • 通讯作者: 丁炳扬

The distribution characteristics and invasive route of Cabomba caroliniana in China

DING Bing-Yang, YU Ming-Jian, JIN Xiao-Feng, YU Jian, JIANG Wei-Mei, DONG KeFeng   

  1. 1 College of Life Sciences,Zhejiang University,Hangzhou 310012
    2 Xiaoshan Middle School of Zhejiang Province,Hangzhou 311200
  • Received:2002-12-25 Revised:2003-04-13 Online:2003-05-20
  • Contact: DING Bing-Yang

水盾草(Cabomba caroliniana)是原产南、北美洲的水生植物,近年来在野外调查中发现它在中国已经成为归化植物。通过华东、华南和华中地区的实地考察,调查点共300多个,覆盖我国东南沿海及华中10省(市、区)80多个县(市)。结果发现有水盾草分布的点67个。目前水盾草在中国分布于浙江北部的杭嘉湖平原和宁绍平原、江苏南部的太湖流域及上海西部的淀山湖附近的河网地带。从地理纬度上看,自29°33′7″N(建德梅城)至31°35′2″N(常熟昆承湖);主要的水域类型为一些水流缓慢、水位稳定的小河道和中小型湖泊。在水盾草所处的沉水植物群落中,共调查到大型沉水植物8科18属21种,常见种为苦草(Vallisneria natans)、金鱼藻(Ceratophyllum demersum)、黑藻(Hydrilla verticillata)、菹草(Potamogeton crispus),这些也是浙北、苏南地区水域主要的水生植物。根据水盾草与各个种的种间相遇百分率来看,金鱼藻最高,为51.33%,其次为苦草、黑藻和菹草,分别为45.05%、36.56%、35.64%。可见相对其他水生植物群落而言,由这些种所组成的水生植物群落更易为水盾草所侵入。从各个分布点水盾草所处状态来看,有些点的水盾草已成为群落的优势种,有的刚刚定居,还有的则仍处于零星漂浮状态,这也表明水盾草在我国仍在进一步扩散之中。根据水盾草种子无成熟的胚及植株对脱水的敏感性,推测中国的水盾草最初可能是作为水族馆观赏水草引进而逸生的。从原产地水盾草分布纬度范围、适生环境、气候条件,结合其在我国的分布特点分析,水盾草在我国尚有很大的扩散空间,为了避免类似凤眼莲(Eichhornia crassipes)那样的事件在中国重演,必须引起有关部门及科技人员对水盾草的重视。

Cabomba caroliniana is a perennial aquatic plant which was originally distributed in North and South America. During investigation in wild fields, it has been found to be a naturalized species. Many actual surveys have been carried out in eastern, southern and central China, including over 300 investigation plots in more than 80 counties (cities) of 10 provinces (municipalities). The results showed that 67 spots had cabomba. At present, the distribution of cabomba in China is restricted to networks of rivers and small lakes in the Hangjiahu Plain (N. Zhejiang), the Ningshao Plain (N.Zhejiang), the drainage area of Taihu Lake (S. Jiangsu), and Diangshanhu (W. Shanghai), with the range of latitude from 29°33′7″ N to 31°35′2″ N. C. caroliniana often occurs in small rivers and lakes whereever the main water bodies are fit for its habitation. Considering that its seeds lack mature embryos and the fronds are susceptible to dehydration, cabomba was probably introduced as an aquarium ornamental plant into China and then escaped. There are 21 species of aquatic plants, belonging to 18 genera and 8 families, in water bodies inhabited by cabomba, and most of plants co-existing with cabomba are Ceratophyllum demersum(percentage of co-appearance,PC =51.33%),Vallisneria natans( PC =45.05%),Hydrilla verticillata( PC =36.56%) and Potamogeton crispus( PC =35.64%), which implies communities with these plants are easily invaded by cabomba. Cabomba is the dominant species in some investigation spots, while other populations are just beginning to be established, indicating that cabomba is now dispersing further. Considering the similarity of environment and climate of its native place, cabomba could be capable of spreading over a large range in China. If we do not bear the fast painful lessons produced by the Eichhornia crassipes in mind, we will surely repeat the same mistake.

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